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Table 2 Association between potential risk factors and colonization by pneumococcal isolate

From: Risk factors for carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children

Variable/risk factor Category Percentage of colonized children (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORd (95% CI) p-value
Gender Boy 37.7% Ref a Ref a  
Girl 32.8% 0.81 (0.54, 1.22) 0.91 (0.57, 1.47) 0.71
Age < 1 year 26.2% Ref Ref  
1–2 30.9% 1.26 (073, 2.19) 0.93 (0.50, 1.74) 0.83
> 2 years 47.0% 2.50 (1.52, 4.18) c 1.31 (0.63, 2.72) 0.47
Nationality Both parents Cypriots 41.0% 2.27 (1.43, 3.70) c 2.31 (1.29, 4.21) c < 0.01 c
Other 23.4% Ref Ref  
Breastfeeding Yes 36.0% 1.09 (0.68, 1.78) 1.28 (0.73, 2.27) 0.40
No 34.0% Ref Ref  
Exposure to smoking Yes 37.3% 1.13 (0.74, 1.73) 1.43 (0.86, 2.40) 0.17
No 34.5% Ref Ref  
Day care attendanceb Yes 51.2% 3.34 (2.18, 5.15) c 2.88 (1.62, 5.20) c < 0.01 c
No 23.9% Ref Ref  
Siblings No 25.6% Ref Ref  
1 41.4% 2.06 (1.27, 3.35) c 2.72 (1.55, 4.86) c < 0.01 c
> = 2 46.0% 2.47 (1.44, 4.29) c 2.78 (1.47, 5.34) c < 0.01 c
Vaccination Full 29.7% 0.85 (0.50, 1.43) 0.48 (0.25, 0.92) c 0.03 c
Incomplete 47.2% 1.80 (0.98, 3.30) 1.64 (0.79, 3.38) 0.18
No 33.2% Ref Ref  
Origin of specimen From a public center 34.0% Ref Ref  
From a private center 37.7% 1.17 (0.77, 1.78) 1.05 (0.62, 1.77) 0.85
  1. aRef means reference group
  2. bIncludes children who were supervised during the morning hours by an adult who also cared for at least 3 other children
  3. cStatistically significant associations are marked in bold
  4. dAdjusted for gender, age, nationality, breastfeeding, exposure to smoking, day care attendance, siblings, vaccination and origin of specimen
  5. p-values for multiple logistic regression model
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