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Table 2. Acid value, total FFAs, and medium-chain FFAs in fresh and frozen breastmilk (N = 10)

From: Variations in the rancid-flavor compounds of human breastmilk under general frozen-storage conditions

Composition Fresh (1) 7-day Frozen (2) 30-day Frozen (3) χ2a p value Post hocb
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
AV (mg KOH/g fat) 1.43 ± 0.81 2.52 ± 0.44 5.26 ± 1.99 20.0 <.001 (2) > (1)**
(3) > (1)**
(3) > (2)**
FFAs (mg/g fat) 6.74 ± 3.64 12.03 ± 1.90 24.41 ± 9.25 20.0 < 0.001 (2) > (1)**
(3) > (1)**
(3) > (2)**
Medium-chain
 Caproic acid (C10:0) 0.05 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.49 0.23 ± 0.15 10.4 0.006 (3) > (1)**
 Lauric acid (C12:0) 0.43 ± 0.24 0.89 ± 0.33 1.52 ± 0.65 16.2 < 0.001 (2) > (1)**
(3) > (1)**
(3) > (2)*
  1. AV Acid values, FFAs Free fatty acids
  2. aResult of Friedman test; b Result of Wilcoxon signed rank test
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01