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Table 2 Characteristics of included cohort studies examining the association between childhood adversity and child developmental outcomes

From: Systematic review of pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity

First author (year, setting) Sample description Exposuresa Outcomes Findings (95% CI)
Boynton-Jarrett (2012, UK) [26] Birth cohort, followed to age 42 years (N = 4524) 1 and 2 or more forms of childhood neglectful environment (physical neglect, maladjustment, mental subnormality in the family, bullying, contact with social services), assessed at age 7 years or at both ages 7 and 11 years Onset of menarche assessed at age 16 years, categorized into early menarche (<= age 11 years), average menarche (age 12–13 years), and late menarche (=> age 14 years) 1 form of neglectful environment, OR = 1.21 (1.03–1.43), and 2 or more forms, OR = 1.76 (1.41–2.20), were both significantly associated with late menarche; neither 1 nor 2 or more forms were significantly associated with early menarche, OR = 0.90 (0.73–1.10) and OR = 1.21 (0.91–1.63), respectively
Enlow (2012, USA) [27] Birth cohort, followed to age 5 years (N = 206) Interpersonal trauma exposure (physical abuse, psychological maltreatment, neglect during age 0–24 month, sexual abuse during age 24–64 months, witnessing partner violence against the mother during age 0–24 or 24–64 months) Cognitive functioning (mental and motor development, intelligence) from 24 months to 96 month of age Interpersonal trauma exposure during age 0–24 months was significantly associated with cognitive scores, P = .002; there was a nonsignificant association for exposure during age 24–64 months, P = .84
Li (2004, UK) [24] Birth cohort, followed to age 33 years (N = 7697) Parental separation or divorce by age 7 years Male height SD scores at ages 7, 11, and 16 years Parental separation or divorce was associated with lower scores at ages 7, 11 (p < .05), and 16 years (P = ns)
   Parental separation or divorce by age 7 years Female height SD scores at ages 7, 11, and 16 years Parental separation or divorce was nonsignificantly associated with lower scores at ages 7, 11, and 16 years
Li (2004, UK) [25] 7993 birth cohort members, followed to age 33 years, and 2462 of their offspring Parental separation or divorce by age 7 years Height SD scores at age 7 years for cohort members and at age 4–18 years for offspring Parental separation or divorce was nonsignificantly associated with lower scores for both cohort members and offspring
Richards (2004, UK) [29] Birth cohort, followed to age 53 years (N = 1339) Parental divorce or death by age 8 years Cognitive ability at ages 8 and 15 years Parental divorce or death was significantly associated with lower cognitive ability at ages 8, P = .05, and 15 years, P = .001
Strathearn (2001, Australia) [28] Birth cohort (born at <1000 g), followed to age 4 years (N = 269) Referred or substantiated maltreatment (physical, emotional, sexual abuse; neglect) occurring prior to cognitive assessment Cognitive delay at age 4 years Referrals and substantiated referrals were significantly associated with cognitive delay, P < .001 and P = .003, respectively
  1. All studies were prospective cohort studies
  2. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; SD, standard deviation
  3. aThe nonexposed comparison represents the absence of the examined exposure