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Table 1 Risk factors for LLE in twins at age 2

From: Prenatal and perinatal risks for late language emergence in a population-level sample of twins at age 2

  LLE
(n = 358)
NLE
(n = 588)
Bivariate Multivariable
(N = 894)
Characteristic N (%) N (%) OR [95% CI] aOR [95% CI]
Maternal
Maternal age
 <=20) 5 (1.4%) 13 (2.2%) 0.1 [0, 12] 0.6 [0.0, 68.8]
 21-25 32 (8.9%) 52 (8.8%) 0.7 [0.1, 5.3] 0.7 [0.1, 7.2]
 26-30 120 (33.5%) 170 (28.9%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 31-35 133 (37.2%) 219 (37.2%) 0.6 [0.2, 2.4] 0.7 [0.2, 2.8]
 36-40 63 (17.6%) 123 (20.9%) 0.4 [0.1, 1.8] 0.4 [0.1, 2.2]
 >40 5 (1.4%) 11 (1.9%) 0.3 [0.0, 22.2] 0.4 [0.0, 62.4]
Maternal education
 <12 years 73 (20.4%) 123 (21%) 2.6 [0.5, 12.3] 0.7 [0.1, 4.3]
 12 years 97 (27.1%) 107 (18.3%) 9.6 [2.0, 45.7]** 3.4 [0.6, 19.7]
 Post school study 23 (6.4%) 55 (9.4%) 0.9 [0.1, 0 8] 2.5 [0.2, 28.5]
 Trade certificate 78 (21.8%) 104 (17.7%) 5.2 [1.0, 26.1]* 2.3 [0.4, 13.9]
 Completed post school qualification 87 (24.3%) 197 (33.6%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
Mother’s country of birth
 Australia 288 (80.4%) 440 (74.8%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 NZ+UK 33 (9.2%) 69 (11.7%) 0.3 [0.1, 2.2] 0.5 [0.1, 4.0]
 Not known 21 (5.9%) 33 (5.6%) 0.9 [0.1, 9.7] 0.6 [0.0, 17.2]
 Other 16 (4.5%) 46 (7.8%) 0.1 [0.0, 1.6] 0.1 [0.0, 1.7]
Marital status
 Married 336 (96.6%) 556 (96.5%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Single, widowed, divorced 12 (3.4%) 20 (3.5%) 1 [0.0, 21.2] 2.6 [0.1, 77.1]
Income
 $200 to $399 per week 10 (2.8%) 22 (3.7%) 0.8 [0.0, 26.8] 0.3 [0.0, 21.1]
 $400 to $599 per week 25 (7%) 59 (10%) 0.8 [0.1, 8.8] 0.4 [0.0, 5.7]
 $600 $799 per week 50 (14%) 90 (15.3%) 1.8 [0.2, 14.2] 1.2 [0.1, 12.6]
 $800 to $999 per week 58 (16.2%) 62 (10.5%) 8.9 [1.0, 76.8]* 6.5 [0.6, 73.0]
 $1,000 to $1,499 per week 87 (24.3%) 161 (27.4%) 1.6 [0.2, 10.1] 1.7 [0.2, 13.7]
 $1,500 to $1,999 per week 62 (17.3%) 82 (13.9%) 4.4 [0.6, 35.3] 4.9 [0.5, 47.8]
 $2,000 to $2,400 or more per week 40 (11.2%) 86 (14.6%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Not stated 26 (7.3%) 26 (4.4%) 11 [0.7, 172.7] 13.1 [0.6, 277.2]
Socio-economic area disadvantagea
<15th percentile of sample 62 (17.3%) 82 (13.9%) 2.2 [0.5, 10.4] 1.7 [0.3, 8.9]
 >15th percentile of the sample 296 (82.7%) 506 (86.1%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
Parity
 0 91 (26.1%) 229 (39.8%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 1 133 (38.2%) 179 (31.1%) 7.4 [1.8, 29.4]** 7.6 [1.6, 37.5]**
>2 124 (35.6%) 168 (29.2%) 7.2 [1.8, 29.3]** 7.9 [1.5, 41.9]**
Height
 lowest tercile 122 (34.1%) 176 (29.9%) 1.5 [0.4, 5.9] 0.8 [0.2, 3.6]
 middle tercile 122 (34.1%) 226 (38.4%) 0.7 [0.2, 2.6] 0.6 [0.1, 2.6]
 highest tercile 114 (31.8%) 186 (31.6%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
Pregnancy
Threatened abortion
 No 329 (91.9%) 547 (93%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Yes 29 (8.1%) 41 (7%) 1.7 [0.2, 13.7] 1.3 [0.1, 14.1]
Pre-eclampsia
 No 306 (85.5%) 490 (83.3%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Yes 52 (14.5%) 98 (16.7%) 0.6 [0.1, 2.8] 0.6 [0.1, 3.0]
Placenta praeviab
 No 354 (98.9%) 588 (100%)   
 Yes 4 (1.1%) 0 (0%)   
Abruptionb
 No 355 (99.2%) 587 (99.8%)   
 Yes 3 (0.8%) 1 (0.2%)   
APH
 No 346 (96.6%) 568 (96.6%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Yes 12 (3.4%) 20 (3.4%) 1 [0.0, 20.4] 1 [0.0, 26.4]
Other pregnancy complications
 None 321 (89.7%) 547 (93%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Other pregnancy complications 37 (10.3%) 41 (7%) 4 [0.5, 28.9] 5.4 [0.6, 45.3]
Gestational Diabetes
 None 333 (93%) 567 (96.4%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Diabetes 25 (7%) 21 (3.6%) 9.6 [0.8, 122.2] 19.5 [1.2, 313.1]*
Fertility treatments
 No 287 (82.5%) 421 (73.3%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Yes 61 (17.5%) 153 (26.7%) 0.2 [0.0, 0.8]* 0.5 [0.1, 2.4]
Threatened preterm labour
 None 322 (89.9%) 546 (92.9%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Threatened preterm labour 36 (10.1%) 42 (7.1%) 3.3 [0.4, 24.2] 2.5 [0.3, 21.4]
Precipitate deliveryb
 None 349 (97.5%) 585 (99.5%)   
 Yes 9 (2.5%) 3 (0.5%)   
Fetal distress
 None 317 (88.5%) 531 (90.3%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Fetal distress 41 (11.5%) 57 (9.7%) 1.2 [0.2, 6.3] 0.6 [0.1 , 3.6]
Cephalopelvic disproportionb
 None 356 (99.4%) 586 (99.7%)   
 Cephalopelvic disproportion 2 (0.6%) 2 (0.3%)   
Prolapsed cordb
 None 356 (99.4%) 581 (98.8%)   
 Prolapsed cord 2 (0.6%) 7 (1.2%)   
PPH >500mls
 No 287 (80.2%) 483 (82.1%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Yes 71 (19.8%) 105 (17.9%) 1.5 [0.4, 6.2] 1.7 [0.4, 8.4]
Infant
Genderc
 Male 173 (48.3%) 281 (47.8%)   
 Female 185 (51.7%) 307 (52.2%)   
Zygosity
 DZ 204 (57%) 422 (71.8%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 MZ 154 (43%) 166 (28.2%) 7.4 [2.3, 24]*** 6.9 [1.7, 27.9]**
Birth order
 First-born twin 179 (50%) 294 (50%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Second-born twin 179 (50%) 294 (50%) 1 [0.6, 1.6] 0.9 [0.5, 1.5]
Apgar 5-minutes <7b
 No 341 (98%) 574 (99.7%)   
 Yes 7 (2%) 2 (0.3%)   
 Total 348 (100%) 576 (100%)   
TSR > 2 minutes
 No 311 (92.3%) 542 (96.6%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 Yes 26 (7.7%) 19 (3.4%) 13.4 [2.3, 77.7]** 13.6 [2.0, 91.1]**
Intubationb
 No 337 (96.8%) 561 (97.4%)   
 Yes 11 (3.2%) 15 (2.6%)   
Estimated gestational age
>34 weeks) 281 (80.7%) 489 (84.9%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 <34weeks 67 (19.3%) 87 (15.1%) 2.6 [0.6, 11.5] 3.2 [0.6, 17.3]
POBW
 normal 275 (79%) 510 (88.5%) 1.0 [referent] 1.0 [referent]
 <15th percentile of sample 73 (21%) 66 (11.5%) 6.6 [2.4, 18.1]*** 4.6 [1.7, 12.7]**
  1. a= defined as bottom 15% of study sample; b= excluded from logistic estimate due to small n.; c = excluded from logistic estimate as gender is taken into account when defining language delay.
  2. *P , .05. **P , .01. ***P , .001.