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Table 3 Overview of relevant characteristics and results of the included studies that involved adolescent participants

From: Comparison of accelerometer measured levels of physical activity and sedentary time between obese and non-obese children and adolescents: a systematic review

Referencea Place & time Study design Sample group Comparison group Measurement Accelerometer cut off points Findings Meet 60 min/day of MVPA (%) and Author Conclusions
Butte et al. [34] United States, 2007 Cross sectional study n: 473 (247 boys, 226 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 95th centile n: 424 (194 boys, 230 girls) participants with BMI <95th centile Actiwatch, worn on the right hip for 24 h for 3 consecutive days Epoch = 1 min Obese spent mean of (boys 88 (SD 50) and girls 74 (SD 46) min/day) on MVPA 62% of all participants (obese and comparison group) achieved an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 10.8 (SD 3.8) years Age: mean 10.8 (SD 3.8) years MVPA and sedentary time cut-points not clearly reported. Comparison group spent mean of (boys 96 (SD 57) and girls 79 (SD 57) min/day) on MVPA MVPA was lower in obese than comparison group but not significant
Obese group spent mean of (boys 357 (SD 118) and girls 345 (SD 122) min/day) sedentary Sedentary time was significantly higher in obese than comparison group (P = 0.001)
Comparison group spent mean of (boys 305 (SD 121) and girls 308 (SD 131) min/day) sedentary  
Chung et al. [36] United States, 2012 Data of NHANES 2003–04 and 2005–06) surveys n: 185 (92 boys, 93 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥95th to 99th centile n: 987 (489 boys, 498 girls) participants with BMI ≥ 5th to 85th centile Actigraph 7164 worn on the right hip for 7 consecutive days during waking hours Epoch = 1 min Obese group spent mean of (boys 34 (SD 4) and girls 16 (SD 4) min/day) on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: range 12 to 17 years Age: range 12 to 17 years MVPA used Freedson cut-point (61) Comparison group spent mean of (boys 40 (SD 3) and girls 22 (SD 2) min/day) on MVPA MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.05)
Decelis et al. [47] Malta, 2012 Cross sectional study n: 34/187 (19 boys, 15 girls) obese participants with BMI defined according to the IOTF criteria n: 106/187 (53 boys, 53 girls) participants with BMI defined as non-overweight and non-obese according to the IOTF criteria Actigraph GT3X, worn on right hip for 5 days during waking hours Epoch not defined Obese group spent mean of (boys 30 (SD 13) and girls 19 (SD 8) min/day) on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: range 11 to 12 years Age: range 11 to 12 years MVPA ≥2912 cpm Comparison group spent mean of (boys 44 (SD 16) and girls 26 (SD 9) min/day) on MVPA 11% of the comparison group achieved an average of 60 min/day MVPA
Sedentary time ≤ 727 cpm Obese group spent mean of (boys 638 (SD 95) and girls 619 (SD 106) min/day) sedentary MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.05)
Comparison group spent mean of (boys 654 (SD 93) and girls 664 (SD 93) min/day) sedentary Sedentary time was higher in obese than comparison group, but not significant
Decelis et al. [48] Malta, 2014 Cross sectional study n: 113/810 (59 boys, 54 girls) obese participants with BMI defined according to the IOTF criteria n: 534/810 (254 boys, 280 girls) participants with BMI defined as non-overweight and non-obese according to the IOTF criteria Actigraph GT3X, worn on right hip for 5 days during waking hours Epoch = 10 s Obese group spent mean of (boys 49 (SD 19) and girls 38 (SD 12) min/day) on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: range 10 to 11 years Age: range 10 to 11 years MVPA > 2296 cpm Comparison group spent mean of (boys 61 (SD 22) and girls 44 (SD 15) min/day) on MVPA MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.05)
Sedentary time < 100 cpm Obese group spent mean of (boys 553 (SD 94) and girls 610 (SD 125) min/day) sedentary Sedentary time was higher in obese than comparison group, but not significant
Comparison group spent mean of (boys 582 (SD 113) and girls 603 (SD 97) min/day) sedentary  
Ekelund et al. [45] Sweden, 2002 Case control, cross sectional design study. n: 18 (8 boys, 10 girls) obese participants with BMI defined according to the IOTF criteria n: 18 (8 boys, 10 girls) participants with BMI defined as non-overweight and non-obese according to the IOTF criteria CSA 7164, worn on lower part of the back (L 4–5) for 14 days Epoch = 15 s Obese group spent mean of (boys 58 (SD 30) and girls 60 (SD 28) min/day) on MVPA MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.05)
Age: mean (boys 18.1 (SD 1.1), girls 17.3 (SD 1.9) years Age: mean (boys 18.2 (SD 1.1), girls 17.3 (SD 1.9) years MVPA cut-points not clearly reported Comparison group spent mean of (boys 82 (SD 36) and girls 98 (SD 58) min/day) on MVPA MVPA was similar in obese girls and boys (p < 0.05)
Sedentary time < 100 cpm Obese group spent mean of (boys 421 (SD 33) and girls 465 (SD 132) min/day) sedentary Sedentary time was similar in obese and comparison group
Comparison group spent mean of (boys 414 (SD 81) and girls 397 (SD 69) min/day) sedentary  
Gyllenham-mer et al. [65] United States, 2013 Cross sectional study n: 37 obese girls with BMI ≥ 95th centile No comparison group Actigraph GT1M, worn on the right hip for 7 consecutive days Epoch = 1 min Obese girls spent mean of 28 (SD 18) min/day on MVPA Obese girls failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 15.5 (SD 1.1) years MVPA cut-points not clearly reported Obese participants spent 63% (SD 7) of their waking time sedentary MVPA was lower in obese girls compared to published data from healthy adolescents
Sedentary time = 100 cpm
Kitzman-Ulrich et al. [31] United States, 2010 Randomized trial ACT (Active by Choice Today) data at baseline used here n: 242/669 (98 boys, 144 girls) obese participants with BMI > 95th centile n: 314/ 669 (138 boys, 176 girls) participants with BMI < 85th centile Actical, worn on the right hip for 7 days all the day Epoch = 1 min Obese participants spent mean of (boys 46 (SD 20) and girls 36 (SD 15) min/day) on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 11.4 (SD 0.7) years Age: mean 11.4 (SD 0.7) years MVPA and sedentary time cut-points not clearly reported Comparison group spent mean of (boys 65 (SD 27) and girls 46 (SD 20) min/day) on MVPA MVPA level was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.05)
Maggio et al. [64] Switzerland, 2014 Case control study n: 24 (12 boys, 12 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 97th centile. “Clinical sample” n: 25 (12 boys, 13 girls) participants with BMI <90th centile Actigraph GT1M, worn for at least 4 days Epoch and MVPA cut-points not clearly reported Obese participants spent mean of 43 (SD 19) min/day on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 13.9 (SD 1.2) years Age: mean 13.2 (SD 1.7) years Sedentary time < 500 cpm Comparison group spent mean of 58 (SD 30) min/day on MVPA MVPA was similar in obese girls and boys (p < 0.05)
MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (P = 0.01)
Martins et al. [66] Portugal, 2015 Cross sectional baseline study n: 131 (48 boys, 83 girls) obese participants with BMI defined according to the IOTF criteria No comparison group Actigraph GT3x, worn for 7 consecutive days. Epoch = 1 mim Obese participants spent mean of (boys 65 (SD 28) and girls 51 (SD 22) min/day) on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 10.3 (SD 3.6) years MVPA cut-points not clearly reported Participants spent mean of (boys 575 (SD 108) and girls 562, (SD 82) min/day) sedentary MVPA was significantly lower in obese girls than obese boys (p < 0.05)
Sedentary time = 0–100 cpm MVPA was lower in obese participants compared to published data from healthy children and adolescents
McMurray et al. [67] United States, 2008 Baseline data of Randomized controlled TAAG “Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls” n: 184/1021 obese girls with BMI ≥ 95th centile. n: 645/1021 participants with BMI < 85th centile Actigraph MTI, worn for 6 consecutive days Epoch = 30 s Obese girls spent mean of 21 (SD 2) min/day on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: range 11 to 14 years Age: range 11 to 14 years MVPA cut-points not clearly reported. Comparison group spent mean of 25 (SD 1) min/day on MVPA MVPA was significantly lower in the obese than the comparison group (p = 0.01)
Page et al. [43] United Kingdom, 2005 Cross sectional study n: 25 (14 boys, 11 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 99th centile. “Clinical and non clinical sample” n: 108 (54 boys, 54 girls) participants with BMI < 99th centile Actigraph 7164, worn on the waist for 7 consecutive days Epoch and MVPA cut-points not clearly reported. Obese participants spent mean of (boys 140 (SD 47) and girls 105(SD 48) min/day) on MVPA Obese participants exceeded an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 10.5 (SD 0.8) years Comparison group spent mean of (boys 176 (SD 52) and girls 149 (SD 52) min/day) on MVPA. MVPA was significantly lower in obese compared to comparison group (p = 0.02)
Peart et al. [68] United States, 2011 Combined data of cross sectional NHANES (2003–04, 2005–06) surveys n: 434/2368 (217 boys, 217 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 95 centile n: 1469/ 2368 (749 boys, 720 girls) participants with BMI < 85th centile Actigraph 7164, worn on hip over 7 day Epoch = 1 min Obese participants spent mean 28 (SD 35) min/day on MVPA Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 15.4 (SD 2.2) years Age: mean 15.4 (SD 2.2) years MVPA≥1500 cpm Comparison group spent mean of 32 (SD 29) min/day on MVPA MVPA was similar in obese boys and girls
MVPA was lower in obese than comparison group but not significantly (p > 0.05)
Ruiz et al. [46] 10 centers in 9 European countries, 2011 Cross sectional study n: 104/2200 (45 boys, 59 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 95th centile n: 1592/2200 (870 boys, 722 girls) participants with BMI < 85th centile Actigraph GT1M, worn lower back for 7 consecutive days Epoch = 15 s Obese participants spent mean of (boys 60 (95%, CI- 53, 68) and girls 44 (95%, CI- 38,50) min/day) on MVPA MVPA was significantly lower in obese boys than comparison boys group (p = 0.002)
Age: median 14.9 (IQR 12.8 to 15.8) years Age: median 14.9 (IQR 12.8 to 15.8) years MVPA ≥2000 cpm Comparison group spent mean of (boys 67, (95%, CI- 65, 69) and girls 51 (95%, CI- 49,52) min/day) on MVPA Sedentary time was significantly higher in obese girls than comparison girls group (p = 0.006)
Sedentary time < 100 Obese participants spent of (boys 68% and girls 71%) of their waking time sedentary
Comparison group spent mean of (boys 69% and girls 72%) of their waking time sedentary
Shoup et al. [69] United States, 2008 Cross sectional study n: 85 obese participants; BMI ≥ 99th centile n: 92 participants with BMI ≥85th and <95th centile matched for age Actigraph 7164, worn on waist for 7 consecutive days. Epoch and MVPA cut-points not clearly reported. Obese participants spent mean of 54 (SD 22) min/day on MVPA. 40% (n = 34) of the obese group achieved an average of 60 min/day on MVPA
“Clinical sample” Comparison group spent mean of 59 (SD 30) min/day on MVPA. 40% (n = 35) of the comparison group achieved 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 10.6 (SD 1.4) years MVPA was similar in obese and comparison group
St George et al. [29]. United States, 2013 Baseline data of ACT Randomized trial (Active by Choice Today). n: 484/1422 (203 boys, 281 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 95th centile. n: 684/1422 (321 boys, 363 girls) participants with BMI < 85th centile. Actical, worn on the right hip for 7 consecutive days. Epoch = 1 min Obese participants spent mean of 37 (SD 22) min/day on MVPA. Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 11.3 (SD 0.6) years Age: mean 11.4 (SD 0.6) years MVPA used Puyau cut-point (66). Comparison group spent mean of 47 (SD 28) min/day on MVPA. MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.01)
Starkoff et al [30]. United States, 2014 Cross sectional study. n: 16 (5 boys, 11 girls) obese participants with BMI ≥ 95 centile. No comparison group Actical, worn on the right hip for 5 days during waking time Epoch = 1 min Obese participants spent mean of (boys 26 (SD 36) and girls 19 (SD 17) min/day) on MVPA 12.5% of the obese group achieved an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
“Clinical sample” Sedentary time and MVPA cut-points not clearly reported Obese participants spent mean of (boys 731 (SD 110) and girls 726 (SD 98) min/day) on sedentary MVPA was lower in obese participants compared to published data from healthy adolescents
Age: mean 14.8 (SD 1.5) years.
Thompson et al. [36]. Canada, 2005 Cross sectional study. n: 171 (93 boys, 78 girls) participants with BMI ≥ 95th centile. n: 716 (327 boys, 389 girls) participants with BMI ≤ 85th centile. Actigraph 7164, worn on the hip for 7 consecutive days. Epoch = 1 min Obese group spent mean of (boys 53 (SD 26) and girls 48 (SD 25) min/day) on MVPA. Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: range 12 to 16 years Age: range 12 to 16 years   MVPA used Freedson cut-point (61) Comparison group spent mean of (boys 58 (SD 30) and girls 47 (SD 24) min/day) on MVPA. Comparison group failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
MVPA was similar in obese and comparison group
Trost et al. [44]. United States, 2001 Cross sectional study. n: 54 obese participants with BMI ≥ 95th centile. n: 133 non obese with CSA 7164, worn on right hip for 7 consecutive days. Epoch = 1 min Obese participants spent mean of 70 (SD 6) min/day on MVPA. Obese participants achieved an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 11.4 (SD 0.6) years. BMI < 95th centile. MVPA used Freedson cut-point (61) Comparison group spent mean of 82 (SD 4) min/day on MVPA. Comparison group achieved an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 11.4 (SD 0.6) years. MVPA was significantly lower in obese than comparison group (p < 0.001)
Vanhelst et al. [33]. France, 2013 Cross sectional study. n: 56 obese participants with BMI ≥ 97th centile. No comparison group RT3 worn on right hip up to 21 consecutive days. Epoch = 1 min Participants spent mean of 22 (SD 12) min/day on MVPA. Obese participants failed to achieve an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
“Clinical sample” MVPA cut-points not clearly reported. MVPA was lower in obese participants compared to published data from healthy children and adolescents
Age: mean 12.8 (SD 2.9) years. Sedentary time = 0–40 cpm
Wang et al. [42] Chine, 2013 Cross sectional “large-scale study” n: 175/2163 (115 boys, 60 girls) obese participants with BMI defined according to the IOTF criteria. n: 1709/2163; 808 boys; 901 girls with BMI defined as non-overweight, non-obese according to the IOTF criteria ActiGraph GT3X, worn on right hip for 7 consecutive days Epoch = 1 min Obese group spent mean of (boys29 (SD 18) and girls 24 (SD 13) min/day) on MVPA 7% of the obese boys achieved an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Age: mean 13.41 (SD 2.25) years. Age: mean 13.41 (SD 2.25) years. MVPA cut-points not clearly reported Comparison group spent mean of (boys 35(SD 19) and girls 22 (SD 14) min/day) on MVPA 10%, 2% of the comparison boys and girls respectively achieved an average of 60 min/day of MVPA
Sedentary time < 100 cpm Obese group spent mean of (boys 480 (SD 107) and girls 490 (SD 89) min/day) sedentary MVPA was similar in obese and comparison groups
Comparison group spent mean of (boys 521 (SD 113) and girls 533, (SD 103) min/day) sedentary Sedentary time was similar in obese and comparison groups
  1. BMI: body mass index; cpm: counts per minutes; IOTF: International Obesity Task Force criteria; MVPA: moderate- vigorous physical activity; n: Number; S: Second, Data are expressed as mean, (SD) unless otherwise. Freedson MVPA cutpoint (61) using the following equation: METS = 2.757 + (0.0015 x counts/min) – (0.08957 x age (yr)) – (0.000038 x counts/min x age (yr)). aStudies are listed in alphabetic order