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Table 4 Bivariate associations with retention to care at 12 months

From: Assessing retention in care after 12 months of the Pediatric Development Clinic implementation in rural Rwanda: a retrospective cohort study

  Retained (n = 147, 66.5%) LTFU (n = 74, 33.5%) P value
n % n %
Gender (N = 219)
 Female 81 63.3 47 36.7 0.189
 Male 66 72.5 25 27.5
Age at the first visit (months) (N = 203)
  < 1 61 74.4 21 25.6 0.570
 1–5 54 70.1 23 29.9
 6–11 6 54.6 5 45.5
 12+ 23 69.7 10 30.3
Gestational age in weeks at birth (weeks) (N = 156)
 Extremely preterm (<  28) 4 57.1 3 42.9 0.861
 Very preterm (28–32) 12 75.0 4 25.0
 Moderate/late (32–37) 40 65.6 21 34.4
 Term (37+) 48 66.7 24 33.3
Birth weight (grams) (N = 171)
 Normal (> 2500) 43 67.2 21 32.8 0.386
 Low (1500–2499) 46 63.9 26 36.1
 Very Low (1000–1499) 26 78.8 7 21.2
 Extremely Low (< 1000) 1 50.0 1 50.0
Diagnosed with PT/LBW (N = 220)
 No 52 62.7 31 37.4 0.376
 Yes 95 69.3 42 30.7
Diagnosed with HIE (N = 219)
 No 93 65.0 50 35.0 0.450
 Yes 54 71.1 22 29.0
Diagnosed with any other conditions (N = 220)
 No 132 69.8 57 30.2 0.024
 Yes 15 48.4 16 51.6
Diagnosed with multiple conditions (N = 220)
 No 128 66.7 64 33.3 > 0.999
 Yes 19 67.9 9 32.1
Age of the primary caretaker (years) (N = 201)
 15–19 9 81.8 2 18.2 0.595
 20–24 45 70.3 19 29.7
 25–34 55 65.5 29 34.5
 35–44 22 57.9 16 42.1
 45+ 3 75.0 1 25.0
Caretakers relationship with the child (N = 159)
 Mother 104 67.1 51 32.9 > 0.999
 Father 2 100.0 0 0.0
 Grandmother 1 50.0 1 50.0
Caretaker’s level of education (N = 172)
 No education 23 79.3 6 20.7 0.387
 No formal education completed 48 68.6 21 30.4
 Primary school completed 49 74.2 17 25.7
 Secondary or higher completed 4 50.0 4 50.0
Caretaker’s marital status (N = 207)
 Married or cohabitating 127 67.2 62 32.8 0.608
 Single, widowed, or divorced 11 61.1 7 38.9
Household socioeconomic status (N = 128)
 Does not qualify for government support 74 69.2 33 30.8 0.315
 Qualifies for government support 12 57.1 9 42.9
Number of other dependents in home (N = 170)
 None 10 50.0 10 50.0 0.027
 1–3 children 81 75.0 27 25.0
 4–5 children 18 69.2 8 30.8
 6+ children 15 93.8 1 6.3
Source of referral (N = 190)
 Hospital 107 64.1 60 35.9 0.416
 Health Centers 13 76.5 4 23.5
 Other 5 83.3 1 16.7
Health Facility of first visit (N = 221)
 Rwinkwavu 77 60.6 50 39.4 0.006
 Kabarondo 52 69.3 23 30.7
 Ndego 18 94.7 1 5.3
Household’s nearest health center has a PDC (N = 217)
 No 32 58.2 23 41.8 0.136
 Yes 113 69.8 49 30.3
Period of referral to PDC (N = 221)
 April 2014–September 2014 79 59.4 54 40.6 0.006
 October 2014 – March 2015 68 77.3 20 22.7
Patient mode of transport to PDC (N = 212)
 Walking 58 67.4 28 32.6 0.832
 Motorbike 47 63.5 27 36.5
 Minibus 26 70.3 11 29.7
 Other 9 60.0 6 40.0
Patient transferred between PDCs (N = 221)
 No 121 64.7 66 35.3 0.236
 Yes 26 76.5 8 23.5
Patient ever received food packages (N = 205)
 No 97 61.4 61 38.6 < 0.001
 Yes 47 100.0 0 0.0
Patient ever received infant formula (N = 205)
 No 134 68.7 61 31.3 0.035
 Yes 10 100.0 0 0.0
Patient ever received transport fees (N = 206)
 No 55 47.4 61 52.6 < 0.001
 Yes 90 100.0 0 0.0
Patient ever received a CHW home visit (N = 205)
 No 134 68.7 61 31.3 0.035
 Yes 10 100.0 0 0.0
  1. LTFU lost to follow up, PT/LBW preterm/low-birth weight, HIE hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, PDC Pediatric Development Clinic, CHW Community Health Worker