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Table 1 Maternal and child characteristics overall and by ethnic group, n (%) or mean (SD), with p values for the difference between White British and Pakistani participants (2 sided t test or chi-squared test)

From: Is small size at birth associated with early childhood morbidity in white British and Pakistani origin UK children aged 0–3? Findings from the born in Bradford cohort study

  All White British Pakistani p value
  8850 4119 4731  
Mother variables
 Mother age at delivery 27.5 (5.61) 27.0 (6.05) 27.9 (5.16) <  0.001
 Mother education higher than A level 2540 (28.7%) 1162 (28.2%) 1372 (29.0%) = 0.420
 Housing tenure (Owner occupied) 5487 (62.0%) 2175 (52.8%) 3312 (70.0%) <  0.001
 Household in receipt of means tested benefits 3797 (42.9%) 1557 (37.8%) 2242 (47.4%) <  0.001
 Mother height (cm) 161.8 (6.35) 164.1 (6.23) 159.7 (5.72) <  0.001
 Mother weight (kg) 74.3 (15.6) 77.9 (16.5) 71.1 (14.0) <  0.001
 Mother BMI (at recruitment) 28.3 (5.47) 28.9 (5.72) 27.8 (5.19) <  0.001
 Parity 0 3513 (39.7%) 4283 (48.4%) 2841 (32.1%) <  0.001
 Parity 1 2558 (28.9%) 2788 (31.5%) 2354 (26.6%)  
 Parity 2+ 2779 (31.4%) 1779 (20.1%) 3655 (41.3%)  
 Mother never smoked 6071 (68.6%) 3690 (41.7%) 8151 (92.1%) <  0.001
 Mother smoked before pregnancy 1478 (16.7%) 2673 (30.2%) 434 (4.9%)  
 Mother smoked during pregnancy 1301 (14.7%) 2496 (28.2%) 266 (3.0%)  
Child Variables
 Birth-weight (g) 3238 (541) 3371 (547) 3147 (518) <  0.001
 Low birthweight (< 2500 g) 620 (7.0%) 443 (5.0%) 770 (8.7%) <  0.001
 Small For Gestational Age (GROW – 10th Decile) 902 (15.8%) 257 (6.24%) 645 (15.3%) <  0.001
 Gestation (weeks) 39.2 (1.72) 39.3 (1.76) 39.2 (1.68) = 0.006
 Pre-term birth (< 37 weeks) 439 (5.0%) 220 (5.3%) 219 (4.6%) = 0.124
 Gender (female) 4319 (48.8%) 4283 (48.4%) 4345 (49.1%) = 0.542
GP appointments 20.0 (13.3) 16.0 (11.6) 23.5 (13.8) <  0.001
Analgesic prescriptions 4.65 (4.97) 2.82 (3.10) 6.24 (5.68) <  0.001
Antibiotic prescriptions 3.24 (3.90) 2.64 (3.26) 3.77 (4.32) <  0.001
Bronchodilator prescriptions 1.44 (3.18) 1.49 (3.04) 1.40 (3.29) = 0.184
Emergency hospital episodes 0.42 (1.00) 0.38 (0.83) 0.45 (1.12) = 0.001
Elective hospital episodes 0.08 (0.61) 0.07 (0.36) 0.10 (0.77) = 0.022