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Table 3 Factors associated with home death in infants and older children from complex chronic conditions in Portugal (1987–2011)

From: Trends in cause and place of death for children in Portugal (a European country with no Paediatric palliative care) during 1987–2011: a population-based study

Variable Category <1 year-olds 1–17 year-olds
HD OR for HD AOR for HDa HD OR for HD AOR for HDb
% N OR 95%CI AOR 95%CI % N OR 95%CI AOR 95%CI
Year of death 1987 21.7 433 1   1   53.6 334 1   1  
Successive years NA   0.88 0.86–0.90 0.86 0.84–0.88 NA   0.91 0.90–0.92 0.90 0.89–0.91
Age bands 0–27 days 3.3 3039 1   1        
28–364 days 18.2 2259 6.48 5.17–8.11 8.53 6.64–10.97       
1–5 years        27.2 1818 1   1  
6–10 years        34.8 1236 1.42 1.21–1.66 1.45 1.22–1.74
11–14 years        30.4 1032 1.17 0.99–1.39 1.10 0.91–1.32
15–17 years        27.9 1056 1.04 0.88–1.24 1.01 0.84–1.23
Cause of death Cancer 20.3 128 1   1   29.4 2611 1   1  
Neuromuscular 15.7 898 0.72 0.46–1.14 0.95 0.56–1.59 39.2 1218 1.61 1.40–1.86 1.70 1.45–2.00
Cardiovascular 11.0 1943 0.47 0.30–0.74 0.59 0.36–0.98 19.0 626 0.58 0.46–0.72 0.50 0.39–0.63
Respiratory 3.3 330 0.13 0.06–0.28 0.19 0.09–0.42 11.4 88 0.32 0.17–0.62 0.31 0.15–0.62
Renal 6.4 157 0.26 0.12–0.57 0.88 0.37–2.04 36.8 38 1.46 0.75–2.83 1.13 0.55–2.33
Gastrointestinal 5.2 172 0.21 0.09–0.46 0.19 0.08–0.45 21.5 65 0.66 0.36–1.19 0.56 0.30–1.08
Haem. & Imunn. 7.5 67 0.31 0.11–0.85 0.42 0.14–1.24 14.2 113 0.41 0.24–0.70 0.60 0.33–1.06
Metabolic 7.0 129 0.29 0.13–0.64 0.39 0.16–0.93 29.9 154 1.05 0.74–1.50 1.09 0.74–1.61
Other 6.0 1474 0.24 0.15–0.39 0.52 0.30–0.89 30.6 229 1.10 0.82–1.47 1.17 0.85–1.62
Semester of death April–September 8.3 2592 1   1        
October–March 11.0 2706 1.36 1.13–1.63 1.41 1.15–1.74       
Population density 5th quintile 6.1 2654 1   1        
4th quintile 13.3 1079 2.37 1.87–3.00 1.76 1.33–2.33       
3rd quintile 10.4 857 1.78 1.36–2.34 1.60 1.18–2.18       
2nd quintile 21.3 446 4.16 3.16–5.49 3.15 2.26–4.39       
1st quintile 8.4 262 1.41 0.89–2.24 1.10 0.66–1.85       
Bed Ratio Above average 3.5 1664 1   1        
Below average 12.5 3634 3.87 2.93–5.12 2.99 2.17–4.13       
Sub-region Greater Lisbon        14.6 954 1   1  
Minho-Lima        42.0 112 4.24 2.80–6.43 3.98 2.56–6.17
Cávado        37.0 211 3.44 2.47–4.79 3.62 2.54–5.15
Ave        32.1 262 2.77 2.02–3.79 2.76 1.98–3.85
Greater Porto        33.2 555 2.91 2.26–3.74 3.06 2.35–3.99
Tâmega        41.5 325 4.17 3.13–5.54 4.68 3.46–6.34
Entre Douro e Vouga        42.6 129 4.36 2.94–6.45 5.03 3.32–7.62
Douro        48.6 138 5.53 3.79–8.08 5.19 3.47–7.76
Alto Trás os Montes        50.8 122 6.06 4.07–9.02 5.49 3.59–8.41
Baixo Vouga        41.5 195 4.17 2.96–5.84 4.05 2.84–5.78
Baixo Mondego        42.6 148 4.35 3.00–6.31 4.26 2.87–6.32
Pinhal Litoral        41.8 122 4.21 2.82–6.30 4.53 2.96–6.94
Pinhal Interior Norte        58.8 68 8.38 5.00–14.02 9.60 5.50–16.77
Dão-Lafões        42.3 149 4.30 2.96–6.23 4.15 2.80–6.16
Pinhal Interior Sul        31.8 22 2.74 1.10–6.83 3.05 1.16–7.97
Serra da Estrela        76.9 26 19.54 7.71–49.63 18.44 6.95–48.91
Beira Interior Norte        50.0 58 5.86 3.40–10.11 6.24 3.48–11.18
Beira Interior Sul        41.9 31 4.24 2.03–8.84 3.69 1.68–8.10
Cova da Beira        42.9 35 4.40 2.20–8.80 3.62 1.73–7.60
Oeste        21.8 147 1.63 1.06–2.51 1.60 1.02–2.51
Médio Tejo        37.8 143 3.56 2.43–5.28 3.43 2.29–5.13
Península de Setúbal        15.9 328 1.11 0.78–1.56 1.07 0.74–1.53
Lezíria do Tejo        17.2 87 1.22 0.68–2.19 1.21 0.66–2.23
Alentejo Litoral        12.1 33 0.81 0.28–2.34 0.72 0.24–2.16
Alto Alentejo        19.7 61 1.44 0.75–2.77 1.18 0.60–2.33
Alentejo Central        27.5 69 2.23 1.28–3.89 2.14 1.19–3.86
Baixo Alentejo        23.6 72 1.81 1.02–3.21 1.73 0.95–3.15
Algarve        9.9 171 0.65 0.38–1.10 0.64 0.37–1.10
Azores        24.1 191 1.86 1.28–2.71 1.72 1.16–2.57
Madeira        18.5 178 1.33 0.88–2.03 1.22 0.79–1.89
  1. Children <1 year-old: N = 5298. Children 1–17 year-old: N = 5142. Haem. & Immun. – Haematology and Immunodeficiency; NA – not applicable; OR – odds ratio; Other – other congenital / genetic conditions. Categories with an OR/AOR of “1” are reference categories. The fifth population density quintile was the most populated. National bed ratio average (practiced allotment in health establishments) was 3.4 beds per 1000 inhabitants in 2011 and 3.7 in 2002; there was no change in regional categorisation between these time-points. p-values were 0.001 (semester) or <0.001 (all other variables)
  2. aModel λ2 826.310, 16df, p < 0.001; Nagelkerke R2 0.307; correct classification of place of death 90.8% (home 14.5%, elsewhere 99.0%). 36/5344 (0.7%) of decedents lived abroad and 10/5344 (0.2%) had missing place of residence; these cases were excluded from the model
  3. bModel λ2 964.565, 41df, p < 0.001; Nagelkerke R2 0.243; correct classification of place of death 75.8% (home 39.8%, elsewhere 91.0%). 84/5227 (1.6%) of decedents lived abroad and 1/5227 (0.0%) had missing place of residence; these cases were excluded from the model