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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted estimates of physicians’ perception of social risk

From: Perceived social risk in medical decision-making for physical child abuse: a mixed-methods study

Covariate Unadjusted Adjusted Model
Perceived Risk Estimate 95% Confidence Interval Perceived Risk Estimate 95% Confidence Interval
Physician Characteristics
 Experience (<10 years) 5.0 −2.0, 11.9 0.7 −7.2, 8.6
 Sex (Female) 1.3 −8.4, 10.9 −5.8 −16.4, 4.7
 Race/Ethnicity (minority) −11.3 −20.3, −2.3 −12.5 −23.4, −1.8
Child Characteristics
 Age (Months) −0.1 −0.3, 0.1 −0.2 −0.3, −0.03
 Sex (Female) −4.6 −8.5, −0.7 −3.4 −6.3, −0.5
Injury Characteristics
 Neurotrauma 12.5 7.7, 17.3 7.0 3.2, 10.7
 Extremity Fracture 3.5 −1.1, 8.2 0.6 −3.0, 4.1
 Skull Fracture referent referent
Child Race/Ethnicity and Perceived Family SES
 Minority, Low SES 29.2 23.6, 34.8 17.9 12.8, 23.0
 Minority, Mid SES 20.6 15.1, 26.1 13.1 8.2, 18.1
 Minority, High SES 6.1 −0.2, 12.5 4.1 −1.4, 9.7
 Non-minority, Low SES 39.5 32.1, 44.8 24.9 19.2, 30.6
 Non-minority, Mid SES 21.9 15.9, 27.5 11.6 6.6, 16.6
 Non-minority, High SES referent referent
Risk Indicators Present (Yes)
 Social 15.9 11.6, 20.1 3.9 0.4, 7.5
 Family 15.4 11.6, 19.1 5.5 2.3, 8.7
 Parent 19.2 14.6, 23.8 6.7 2.8, 10.6
 Child 3.2 −2.3, 8.7 0.1 −4.1, 4.2
Negative Social Cue (Number)
 One Cue 8.5 4.0, 13.0 5.3 1.3, 9.4
 Two Cues 21.0 15.9, 26.0 13.2 8.6, 17.8
 Three or Four Cues 28.7 23.8, 33.6 19.5 15.0, 24.1
 Five or Greater Cues 39.2 33.6, 44.8 23.1 17.5, 28.7
Positive Social Cue (Number)
 One Cue −8.4 −12.7, −4.0 −1.2 −4.7, 2.3
 Two Cues −9.5 −15.5, −3.4 −4.6 −9.4, 0.3
 Three or Four Cues −13.3 −20.1, −6.5 −4.4 −9.9, 1.1
 Five or Greater Cues −36.6 −49.0, −24.2 −21.3 −31.2, −11.4
Negative Non-social Cue (Number)
 One Cue 7.5 2.7, 12.3 −0.5 −4.3, 3.3
 Two or More 9.5 1.8, 17.3 3.1 −2.9, 9.0
Positive Non-social Cue (Number)
 One Cue −14.0 −20.2, −7.7 −9.5 −14.3, −4.7
 Two Cues −13.7 −20.2, −7.1 −7.8 −12.9, −2.7
 Three Cues −13.1 −20.0, −6.2 −6.8 −12.3, −1.3
 Four or Greater Cues −14.6 −21.5, −7.6 −3.7 −9.4, 2.0
  1. Negative numbers indicate lower perceived social risk while positive numbers reflect a higher perceived social risk compared to referent value for each covariate
  2. SES Socioeconomic status