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Table 3 Comparison of children and device characteristics in the two groups with and without complications

From: Full title: peripheral venous catheter complications in children: predisposing factors in a multicenter prospective cohort study

Characteristics Complication (N = 109) No Complication (N = 106) Univariate analysis Multivariate Analysis
Median ± IQR
N (%)
Median ± IQR
N (%)
p-value HR [CI95%HR] p-value
Male gender 59 (54.1) 57 (53.8) 0.958   
Age (years) 3 (5.7) 5 (6.7) 0.658   0.527
Duration of hospitalization (days) 13 (7) 8 (10) 0.093   0.383
Total duration of IV therapy/patient (days) 11(10) 7 (8.75) <0.001   0.011
Dwell time (hours) 48 (48) 72 (51.2) <0.001   <0.001
Rank of the PVC/patient 2 (2) 1 (1) 0.352   
Study site
 Pediatric Department A of CHBH 30 (27.5) 33 (31.1) 0.764   
 Pediatric Department B of CHBH 14 (12.8) 10 (9.4)   
 Pediatric Department C of CHBH 34 (31.2) 29 (27.4)   
 Surgery Department A of CHBH 2 (1.8) 4 (3.8)   
 Pediatric Department of LRH 29 (26.6) 30 (28.3)   
Diagnosis
 Infection 27 (24.8) 19 (17.9) 0.047   0.336
 Respiratory 38 (34.9) 27 (25.5)  
 Hematology 14 (12.8) 21 (19.8)  
 Metabolic 9 (8.3) 21 (19.8)  
 Other 21 (19.3) 18 (17)  
Site of PVC insertion
 Hand 86 (78.9) 85 (80.2) 0.0547   0.714
 Foot 20 (18.3) 17 (16)  
 Other 3 (2.8) 4 (3.8)  
Cannula gauge
 22G (blue) 50 (45.9) 65 (61.3) 0.023 1.87 [1.09–3.22] 0.164
 24 G (yellow) 59 (54.1) 41 (38.7)
Reason for PVC insertion
 Medication 76 (69.7) 69 (65.1) 0.656   0.769
 Infusion 26 (33.9) 27 (25.5)  
 Blood product transfusion 7 (6.4) 10 (9.4)  
Drug/infusion administration method
 Gravitational 52 (47.7) 62 (58.5) 0.036   0.216
 Volume-controlled burette 35 (32.1) 18 (17)    
 Infusion pump 22 (20.2) 26 (24.5)    
Administration rhythm ≥3 times/day 60 (55) 63 (59.4) 0.516   0.703
Number of medications/device 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.150   0.527
Antibiotics 68 (62.4) 46 (43.4) 0.005 2.16 [1.25–3.73] 0.615
Ampicillin 9 (8.3) 10 (9) 0.761   
Amoxicillin clavulanate 9 (8.3) 9 (8.3) 0.951   
Cefotaxim 29 (26.6) 15 (14.2) 0.024 2.19 [1.1–4.39] 0.545
Ceftriaxone 3 (2.8) 2 (1.9) 0.674   
Ceftazidime 9 (8.3) 7 (6.6) 0.644   
Fosfomycin 1 (0.9) 3 (2.8) 0.365   
Vancomycin 11 (10.1) 3 (2.8) 0.031 3.86 [1.04–14.29] 0.104
Amikacin 7 (6.4) 4 (3.8) 0.378   
Paracetamol 11 (10.1) 20 (18.9) 0.067   0.572
Aciclovir 5 (4.8) 2 (1.9) 0.244   
Proton Pump Inhibitors 20 (18.3) 6 (5.7) 0.004 3.74 [1.44–9.74] 0.011
Corticosteroids 10 (9.2) 6 (5.7) 0.326   
Pamidronate 2 (1.8) 5 (4.7) 0.275   
Infusate
 10% dextrose 10 (34.5) 11 (37.9) 0.445   
 5% dextrose 16 (55.2) 12 (41.4)    
 Normosaline 3 (10.3) 6 (20.7)    
  1. IQR Inter-quartile range, HR Hazard ratio, CI95%HR: Confidence interval to 95% of the hazard ratio