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Table 2 Comorbidities of patients by indication for advanced endoscopy

From: Paediatric pancreaticobiliary endoscopy: a 21-year experience from a tertiary hepatobiliary centre and systematic literature review

Procedure and indication

Predisposing factors for pancreaticobiliary disease

Additional comorbidities


 Biliary obstruction (stricture and stone disease)

Thalassaemia intermedia with chronic haemolysis, short gut syndrome, cholecystitis, hyperbilirubinaemia, hereditary spherocytosis, spine abscess requiring fusion of vertebrae and prolonged course of ceftriaxone, meningococcal septicaemia requiring ceftriaxone, sickle cell disease, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 with insulinoma requiring pancreatic resection

Eosinophilic gastroenteropathy, premature birth, patent ductus arteriosis repair, Salmonella septicaemia, learning difficulties, pyruvate kinase deficiency, pneumonitis

 Bile leak

  Chronic or recurrent pancreatitis

Juvenile onset chronic pancreatitis, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, gallbladder stones, Caroli’s disease, chronic pancreatitis, Senior loken syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease, bone marrow transplant

Intestinal atresia, autoimmune enterocolitis, polycystic kidney disease, duplex kidney, renal transplant, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, type 1 diabetes, bilateral carpal tunnel, autonomic dysfunction, postural hypotension, Lebers amaurosis, joint surgery, functional neurological and bowel disorder, deep vein thrombosis,

 Pancreatic fluid collection



Acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, lymphoma (Hodgkin’s, anaplastic large cell or T- cell non Hodgkin’s), hereditary spherocytosis, Beckwith Wiedman Syndrome,

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, liver transplant, epilepsy, pneumonitis, avascular necrosis of the hip, vascular occlusive disease, hiatus hernia, irritable bowel syndrome, Rhabdomyoma


Hereditary pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis, Lebers amaurosis, Caroli’s disease, Senior loken syndrome,

Functional neurological and bowel disorder, duplex kidney, deep vein thrombosis, renal failure, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, joint surgery