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Table 1 Indications and outcomes from paediatric ERCP and EUS case series published between 2000 and 2015

From: Paediatric pancreaticobiliary endoscopy: a 21-year experience from a tertiary hepatobiliary centre and systematic literature review

Author and year Number of patients Adult or paediatric endoscopist Number of procedures Procedure type Indication for ERCP / EUS Technical success
% (n)
Therapy performed
% (n)
Adverse events
% (n)
Hsu RK
2000 [7]
22 Adult 34 ERCP AP (6), recurrent pancreatitis (5), CP (11) NR 53% (18) 6% (2)
Poddar U
2001 [8]
72 Paediatric 84 ERCP Suspected biliary tract disease (44), suspected choledochal cysts (14), extrahepatic portal venous obstruction before shunt surgery (19), suspected CBD stone (2), histiocytosis with cholestatic jaundice (2), bile leak (2), autoimmune hepatitis (1), CP or recurrent pancreatitis (14), pancreatic ascites or fistula (6), recurrent abdominal pain (8) 97% (70/72) 30% (22) 8% (6)
Prasil P
2001 [9]
20 Adult 21 ERCP Biliary indication (15), pancreatic indication (6) 91% (19) 48% (10) 33% (7)
Varadarajulu S 2004 [29] 116 Adult 163 ERCP Suspected biliary obstruction (47), Bile leak (9), Pancreatitis (acute gallstone, CP, recurrent) (58), traumatic PD injury (2) 98% (161) 67% (77) 2.5% (3)
Cheng CL
2005 [10]
245 Adult 329 ERCP Biliary pathology (93), pancreatic pathology (111), abdominal pain, suspected biliary or pancreatic origin (41) 98% (322) 71% (235) 9.7% (32)
Varadarajulu S 2005 [36] 14 Adult 15 EUS AP or recurrent pancreatitis (6), suspected biliary obstruction (5), abdominal pain (3) 100% (15) 0% (0) 0% (0)
Durakbasa CU 2008 [11] 28 Adult 32 ERCP Biliary pathology (21), pancreatic pathology (7) 100% (32) 63% (20) 6% (2)
Cohen S
2008 [37]
32 Adult 32 EUS Recurrent pancreatitis (9), pancreatic mass (6), obstructive jaundice (4), oesophageal stenosis (4), oesophageal mass (2), duodenal indication (1), stomach and rectal indication (2) 100% (32) 0% (0) 0% (0)
Attila T
2009 [38]
38 Adult 40 EUS Pancreatitis (10), solid pancreatic mass (7), cystic pancreatic mass (1), CP + cyst (1), suspected annular pancreas (1), coeliac plexus block (1), CBD stone (1), abdominal pain and atrophic pancreas (1), ampullary adenoma (1), abnormal MRCP (1) 100% (40) 5% (2) Coeliac plexus block 0% (0)
Vegting IL
2009 [12]
61 Adult 99 ERCP Biliary atresia (26), choledochal cyst (7), cholestasis (6), CBD stone (5), Bile leak post surgery (4), traumatic liver injury (1), PSC (1), portal cavenoma (1), pancreatitis (4), traumatic pancreatic injury (3), pseudocyst (2), pancreaticoblastoma (1) 100% (99) 60% (60) 4% (4)
Li ZS
2010 [39]
42 Adult 110 ERCP CP (42) 100% (110) 100% (110) 17.3% (19)
Jang JY
2010 [13]
122 Paediatrica 245 ERCP AP (7), recurrent AP (11), CP (20), trauma (3), pancreatic mass (2), choledochal cysts (40), choledocholithiasis (24), suspected sclerosing cholangitis (8), trauma (2), other (4) 98% (241) 78% (190) 18% (45)
Otto AK
2011 [14]
167 Adult 231 ERCP CP or recurrent pancreatitis (106), AP (42), CBD stone (26), choledochal cyst (2), congenital biliary obstruction (2), malignant biliary obstruction (1) 100% (231) 69% (159) 4.7% (11)
Troendle DM 2013 [40] 65 Paediatric 65 ERCP Choledocholithiasis (65) 98% (64) 100% (100) 8% (5)
Enestvedt BK 2013 [41] 296 Adult 429 ERCP Abnormal liver-associated enzymes (109), CBD stone (107), follow-up ERCP (52), recurrent pancreatitis (47), suspected bile or pancreatic duct leak (45), cholangitis (27), jaundice (23), abdominal pain (12), cyst drainage (4), PD endotherapy (3) 95% (408) 64% (275) 7.7% (33)
Limketkai BN 2013 [24] 154 Adult 289 ERCP CBD stone (52), elevated transaminases (25), PSC (16), stent removal (12), cholangitis (7), CBD stricture (7), bile leak (6), choledochal cyst (7), chronic abdominal pain (8), recurrent pancreatitis or CP (110), stent removal (33), pseudocyst (18), PD stone (14), AP (9), PD stricture (3), PD disruption (2), pancreatic mass (2), post-operative pancreatic fistula (2) 94% (272) 86% (247) 5.9% (17)
Halvorson L 2013 [42] 45 Adult 70 ERCP CBD stone (17), PD leak (5), bile duct leak (12), PD stricture (1), CBD stricture (3), pancreas divisum (5), CP (1), pseudocyst (2), ampullary adenoma (1), SOD (2), recurrent AP (5), PSC (2) 99% (69) 100% (70) 7.1% (5)
Agarwal J
2014 [1]
172 Adult 221 ERCP Abdominal pain (153), pancreatic fistula (11), symptomatic pseudocyst (4), and jaundice (3) 100% (221) 71% (157) 4.7% (8)
Kieling CO
2014 [43]
60 Adult 75 ERCP Bile duct obstruction (49.3%), sclerosing cholangitis (18.7%), post-surgery complication (12%), biliary stent (10.7%), choledochal cyst (5.3%), and pancreatitis (4%) 95% (57) 73% (55) 9.7% (7)
Liu W
2014 [44]
(Abstract)b
68 Unknown 102 ERCP Bile duct stone (37), PD stone (8), bile duct benign stricture (7), other (16) 100% (102) NR 4% (4)
Oracz G
2014 [45]
157 Adult 481 ERCP CP (481) 99% (475) 46% (223-PD stent) 1.9% (9)
Saito T
2014 [46]
220 Paediatric 235 ERCP Choledochal cyst (92), biliary atresia (62), other (cholelithiasis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis) (66) 96% (225) 3% (8) 9.8% (23)
Scheers I
2015 [5]
48 Adult 52 EUS (+/− combined ERCP) Suspected biliary obstruction (20), AP or CP (20), pancreatic mass (3), pancreatic trauma (7), ampullary adenoma (2) 98% (51) 25% (13) 3.8% (2)
Giefer MJ
2015 [47]
276 Adult 425 ERCP Biliary obstruction (184) CP (114), suspected SOD (38), AP (29), relapsing pancreatitis (8), other (52) 95% (403) 81% (346) 8.8% (28)
Ford K
2015 [48]
9 Adult 9 ERCP CP (9) 78% (7) 78% (7) 0% (0)
  1. ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography, EUS endoscopic ultrasound, NR not recorded, CBD common bile duct, MRCP magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, PD pancreatic duct, SOD sphincter oddi dysfunction, AP acute pancreatitis, CP chronic pancreatitis, PSC primary sclerosing Cholangitits
  2. a= adult endoscopist supervision in initial and complex cases
  3. b=article in Chinese, English abstract only