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Table 1 Characteristics of the Lililwan cohort

From: Pediatric hospital admissions in Indigenous children: a population-based study in remote Australia

Variable Total (n = 127)
n (%)
Hospital Admissions (n = 89) No Hospital Admissions (n = 38) P-value (Chi2 Test)
Indigenous (child) 121 (95.3) 88 (98.9) 33 (86.8) 0.009*
Sex male 67 (52.8) 49 (55.1) 18 (47.4)  
Place of residence at time of assessment (n = 127)
 Very Remote (ARIA+)d 127 (100.0)    
  a) Town (population 1000–9999) 43 (33.9) 26 (29.2) 17 (44.7)  
  b) Outer suburbs (within 30 km of remote town) 26 (20.5) 17 (19.1) 9 (23.7)  
  c) Sub-regional hub (population 200–999) 31 (24.4) 22 (24.7) 9 (23.7)  
  d) Satellite community (population < 200) 27 (21.3) 24 (27.0) 3 (7.9)  
  a + b) Town or Outer suburbs 69 (54.3) 43 (33.9) 26 (68.4) 0.037*e
  c + d) Hub or satellite community (n = 127) 58 (45.7) 46 (51.7) 12 (31.6)
Food insecurity (Y/N) (n = 124) 52 (41.9) 43 (48.3)e 9 (24.3)# 0.01*
Financial concerns (n = 124) 47 (37.9) 37 (42.0)e 10 (27.0)#  
Number living in overcrowded households n = 124 42 (33.1) 33 (37.0) 9 (23.7)  
Number in household - median (range)# 4 (2–16) 4 (2–12) 4 (2–16)  
Number of older siblings – median (range)# 2.0 (0–7) 2.0 (0–7) 2.0 (0–3)  
Number of younger siblings – median (range)# 1.0 (0–3) 1.0 (0–3) 1.0 (0–3)  
Mothers age at pregnancy (median, range)# 23 (14–43) 23 (15–36) 24 (14–43)  
Gestation (n = 118)     
   ≥ 37 weeks (term)# 103 (87.1) 75 (84.3) 28 (73.7)  
   < 37 weeks (preterm) 15 (12.7) 11 (12.4) 4 (10.5)  
   < 28 weeks (extremely preterm) 4 (3.4) 3 (3.5) 1 (2.6)  
Alcohol exposed in utero (Y/N) (n = 122) 67 (52.8) 50 (56.2)# 17 (44.7)#  
FASD diagnosis (n = 108) 21 (19.4) 19 (21.3) 2 (5.7)#  
Microcephaly at assessment n=108a 16 (14.8) 12 (13.5) 4 (10.5)  
Low Birth Weight (n = 105)¶     
 Very low birth weight (< 1500 g) 3 (2.9)    
 Low birth weight (< 2500 g) 18 (17.1)    
  Birth weight ≤ 3rd percentileb 2 (1.9)    
  Birth weight ≤ 10th percentileb 11 (10.5)    
Growth deficiency at any age (Y/N) (n = 92)b 32 (34.8) 26 (41.3) 6 (20.6)  
Any hearing loss (n = 98)c 54 (55.1) 40 (57.1) 14 (50)#  
Exposure to cigarettes (nicotine) in utero (Y/N) n = 119 76 (65.5) 53 (63.1)# 23 (65.7)#  
Marijuana exposure in utero (Y/N) n = 119 16 (13.4) 12 (14.3)# 4 (11.4)#  
Both cigarettes and marijuana (Y/N) n = 119 16 (13.4) 12 (14.3)# 4 (11.4)#  
  1. #indicates missing values as data due to unavailable data
  2. ¶ Data unavailable for hospitalised and non-hospitalised sub-groups
  3. *indicates significant difference p < 0.05
  4. aMicrocephaly: head circumference < 3rd percentile using WHO Child Growth Standards
  5. bGrowth deficiency at any age: height or weight < 10th centile recorded at any age from birth until time of assessment in Stage 2 (7 to 9 years of age)
  6. cHearing loss: Determined by an audiologist who conducted tympanometry, audiometry, video-otoscopy and Listening in Spatialized Noise - Sentences Test (LiSN-S) for Central Auditory Processing Disorder assessments
  7. dRemoteness was classified using the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGC) Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA+), developed by the National Centre for the Social Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GISCA) and the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care (DH&AC) in order to classify remoteness of 12,000 populations in Australia based on physical road distance measurements to nearest service centres
  8. eNote significance here was calculated for a + b versus c + d