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Table 4 Bivariate Associations with Total Scores on the ASQ-3

From: Health, nutrition, and development of children born preterm and low birth weight in rural Rwanda: a cross-sectional study

  ASQ-3 Total Score p-value
  Median (IQR)  
Demographic Characteristics
 Child’s sex   0.161
  Male 130 (95–190)  
  Female 105 (67.5–165)  
 Education level   0.001
  None 101 (53–121)  
  Primary 136 (93–188)  
  Secondary 193 (143–225.5)  
 Socioeconomic Status   0.261
  Category 2 119.5 (82.5–140.5)  
  Category 3 133.5 (93–179)  
  Unknown 132 (94–202)  
 Other children in the household   0.016
  No other children in the household 168 (121–176)  
  1–3 other children in the household 131 (87.5–187)  
  4 or more other children in the household 104 (62.5–150)  
Birth Characteristics
 Very low birth weight (n = 83)   0.043
  Yes, < 1500 g 101 (77–121)  
  No, > = 1500 g 135 (93–176)  
 Size at Birth (n = 54)   
  Small for gestational age 105 (60–137.5) 0.023
  Not small for gestational age 151.5 (95–200)  
 Prematurity Category (n = 55)   0.045
  Very preterm (<32 weeks) 95 (85–160)  
  Moderate/late preterm (32 to <37 weeks) 130 (95–170)  
  Term (> = 37 weeks) 65 (15–90)  
 Overall risk category (n = 54)   0.015
  Term and small for gestational age 65 (15–90)  
  Preterm and small for gestational age 115 (70–145)  
  Preterm and not small for gestational age 151.5 (95–200)  
Health Status   
 Head Circumference (n = 84)   0.004
  Normal 120 (85–170)  
  Microcephaly 0 (0–55)  
  Macrocephaly 200 (165–235)  
 Caregiver-reported signs of anemia   0.040
  No 130 (87.5–200)  
  Yes 107.5 (65–155)  
 Caregiver-reported feeding difficulties   0.008
  No 146.5 (90–200)  
  Yes 100 (65–150)  
 Caregiver-reported signs of respiratory disease   0.164
  No 142.5 (70–205)  
  Yes 112.5 (85–161.5)  
Nutritional Status   
 Stunting (height/age, n = 83)   0.034
  Normal 159 (102–176)  
  Moderate 136 (103–203)  
  Severe 104 (70.5–156.5)  
 Wasting (weight/height, n = 80)   0.586
  Normal 120 (85–175)  
  Moderate/Severea 130 (70–150)  
 Underweight (weight/age, n = 84)   0.084
  Normal 142.5 (99.5–183.5)  
  Moderate 110 (87–169)  
  Severe 99 (15.5–155)  
  1. aWasting is reported as normal or combined moderate and severe due to the small number of wasted children