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Table 3 Health, nutrition, and developmental status stratified by age

From: Health, nutrition, and development of children born preterm and low birth weight in rural Rwanda: a cross-sectional study

  Overall 12–23 Months 24+ Months  
  n = 86 n = 46 n = 40 p-value
Health Status
 Head Circumference (n = 84), n (%)     0.863
  Normal 76 (90.5) 41 (91.1) 35 (89.7)  
  Microcephaly 5 (6.0) 2 (4.4) 3 (7.7)  
  Macrocephaly 3 (3.6) 2 (4.4) 1 (2.6)  
 Caregiver-reported signs of anemia, n (%)     0.381
  No 52 (60.5) 30 (65.2) 22 (55.0)  
  Yes 34 (39.5) 16 (34.8) 18 (45.0)  
 Caregiver-reported feeding difficulties, n (%)     1.000
  No 46 (53.5) 25 (54.4) 21 (52.5)  
  Yes 40 (46.5) 21 (45.7) 19 (47.5)  
 Caregiver-reported signs of respiratory disease, n (%)     1.000
  No 38 (44.2) 20 (43.5) 18 (45.0)  
  Yes 48 (55.8) 26 (56.5) 22 (55.0)  
Nutritional Statusa
 Stunting (n = 83), n (%)     1.000
  Normal 18 (21.7) 10 (22.2) 8 (21.1)  
  Moderate Stunting 37 (44.6) 20 (44.4) 17 (44.7)  
  Severely stunting 28 (33.7) 15 (33.3) 13 (34.2)  
 Wasting (n = 80), n (%)     0.407
  Normal 73 (91.3) 40 (93.0) 33 (89.2)  
  Moderate Wasting 6 (7.5) 2 (4.7) 4 (10.8)  
  Severely wasting 1 (1.3) 1 (2.3) 0 (0.0)  
 Underweight (n = 84), n (%)     0.323
  Normal 52 (61.9) 29 (64.4) 23 (59.0)  
  Moderately underweight 22 (26.2) 13 (28.9) 9 (23.1)  
  Severely underweight 10 (11.9) 3 (6.7) 7 (18.0)  
Developmental Status on ASQ-3
 ASQ-3 Overall Sum Score, median (IQR) 120 (85–170) 105 (70–165) 142.5 (92.5–187.5) 0.113
 ASQ-3 Developmental Status     0.604
  On-track, n (%) 3 (3.5) 1 (2.2) 2 (5.0)  
  Monitoring Zone, n (%) 25 (29.1) 15 (32.6) 10 (25.0)  
  Delayed, n (%) 58 (67.4) 30 (65.2) 28 (70.0)  
Number of ASQ-3 Domains Delayed, median (IQR) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 0.827
  1. aZ-scores were not calculated for some children due to biologically infeasible values based on standard WHO Growth Standards scoring procedures