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Table 2 Determinants of choice of informal provider for infant male circumcision

From: The influence of socioeconomic factors on choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana; a community level population based study

  Total number of infants Number (%) of infants who received circumcision from an informal provider
n = 2847 n = 1670 (58.7%) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) model 1a Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) model 2b
Income status of household (quintile)
 1 (Lowest) 387 325 (84.0%) 7.12 (5.19–9.76) 5.77 (4.15–8.02) 4.42 (3.12–6.27)
 2 532 349 (65.6%) 2.59 (2.04–3.29) 2.26 (1.76–2.91) 1.89 (1.45–2.47)
 3 628 355 (56.5%) 1.77 (1.41–2.21) 1.67 (1.32–2.11) 1.49 (1.17–1.90)
 4 687 381 (55.5%) 1.69 (1.36–2.11) 1.58 (1.26–1.98) 1.48 (1.17–1.87)
 5 (Highest) 613 260 (42.4%) Ref Ref Ref
 Missing data 0 - -
Distance to health facility
 < 1 km 1444 776 (53.8%) Ref Ref Ref
 1–4.9 km 741 433 (58.4%) 1.21 (1.01–1.45) 1.20 (1.00–1.45) 1.20 (1.00–1.45)
 5–9.9 km 400 286 (71.5%) 2.16 (1.70–2.74) 1.28 (1.00–1.67) 1.28 (1.00–1.67)
 10 km or more 186 154 (83.4%) 4.41 (2.94–6.61) 2.70 (1.76–4.12) 2.70 (1.76–4.12)
 Missing data 76 21 (26.6%) - -
   Mean 3.2 km sd 3.7 -
Cost of circumcisionc
 Free 539 269 (49.9%) Ref Ref Ref
 Less than 10 Ghs 145 114 (78.6%) 3.69 (2.40–5.68) 2.43 (1.54–3.84) 2.41 (1.53–3.79)
 Between 10 and 20 Ghs 1530 888 (58.0%) 1.39 (1.14–1.69) 1.22 (0.91–1.38) 1.14 (0.92–1.41)
 20 Ghs or more 554 337 (60.8%) 1.56 (1.23–1.98) 1.32 (1.03–1.69) 1.26 (0.97–1.63)
 Missing data 79 62 (78.5%)
Maternal occupation
 Gov’t/private employed 105 49 (46.7%) 0.63 (0.41–0.96) 1.19 (0.75–1.88) 1.41 (0.87–2.27)
 Self-employed 927 514 (55.4%) 0.89 (0.71–1.11) 1.19 (0.92–1.54) 1.21 (0.93–1.57)
 Farming 589 380 (64.6%) 1.31 (1.02–1.68) 0.91 (0.67–1.23) 0.87 (0.63–1.19)
 Not working 484 282 (58.3%) Ref Ref Ref
 Missing data 742 445 (59.9%) - -
Maternal educational level
 None 512 359 (70.1%) 2.31 (1.83–2.92) 1.36 (1.05–1.77) 1.30 (1.00–1.70)
 Primary 1481 882 (59.6%) 1.45 (1.23–1.72) 1.24 (1.04–1.48) 1.21 (1.01–1.45)
 Secondary 850 427 (50.4%) Ref Ref Ref
 Missing data 4 2 (28.6%) - -
Maternal religion
 Christian 2048 1081 (52.9%) Ref Ref Ref
 Muslim 666 496 (74.5%) 2.60 (2.14–3.16) 2.26 (1.84–2.78) 2.40 (1.93–2.98)
 Traditional African/None 129 91 (70.5%) 2.13 (1.45–3.15) 1.36 (0.90–2.04) 1.33 (0.88–1.99)
 Missing data 4 2 (0.0%)
Maternal age (years)
 Less than 20 319 192 (60.4%) Ref Ref Ref
 20–29 1458 854 (58.6%) 0.93 (0.72–1.19) 1.10 (0.85–1.42) 1.05 (0.80–1.37)
 30 or more 1066 622 (58.7%) 0.92 (0.72–1.19) 0.98 (0.74–1.28) 0.94 (0.71–1.23)
 Missing data 4 2 (28.6%)
Site of delivery
 Health facility 2291 1241 (54.2%) Ref Ref Ref
 Home 549 425 (77.7%) 2.95 (2.37–3.66) 2.04 (1.62–2.59) 1.89 (1.49–2.41)
 Missing data 6 4 (40.0%)
Birth weight
 Less than 2.5 kg 214 136 (63.6%) 1.25 (0.94–1.67) 1.24 (0.91–1.69) 1.24 (0.91–1.70)
 2.5 kg or greater 2633 1534 (58.2%) Ref Ref Ref
 Missing data 0 0 (0.0%)
Age at circumcision
 0–6 days 117 68 (58.1%) Ref Ref Ref
 7–20 days 2556 1483 (58.3%) 0.99 (0.68–1.45) 1.09 (0.74–1.62) 1.08 (0.71–1.64)
 > 20 days 172 119 (69.2%) 1.62 (0.99–2.64) 1.31 (0.78–2.21) 1.29 (0.75–2.22)
 Missing data 2 0 (0.0%)
  1. Ref Reference group, CI Confidence interval, sd Standard deviation
  2. a Model 1. Adjusted for income status, cost of circumcision, religion, maternal education and maternal age
  3. bModel 2. Further adjusted for distance to health facility
  4. c1 Ghs = 0.6 $US (2012)