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Table 4 Factors associated with stunting and severe stunting in Burundian children aged 6-23 months, 2014

From: Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014

  Stunted Severely stunted
Child characteristics Crude OR p-value Adjusted OR p-value Crude OR p-value Adjusted OR p-value
Sex
 Female 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Male 1.4 [1.3-1.5] <0.001 1.5 [1.4-1.8] <0.001 1.7 [1.5-1.9] <0.001 1.9 [1.6-2.2] <0.001
Age (months)
 6-11 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 12-17 2.0 [1.8-2.3] <0.001 2.1 [1.8-2.4] <0.001 2.0 [1.7-2.4] <0.001 2.2 [1.9-2.6] <0.001
 18-23 3.0 [2.7-3.4] <0.001 3.2 [2.8-3.7] <0.001 2.9 [2.5-3.4] <0.001 3.0 [2.7-3.9] <0.001
Sickness episode within 2 weeks
 No 1.0     1.0    
 Yes 1.0 [0.9-1.1] 0.31    1.2 [1.1-1.4] 0.003   
Place of delivery
 Health facility 1.0   1.0   1.0    
 Home 1.4 [1.2-1.6] <0.001 1.4 [1.2-1.6] <0.001 1.3 [1.1-1.5] 0.001 1.2 [1.1-1.5] 0.03
Exclusive 6 months breastfeeding
 No 1.0     1.0    
 Yes 1.1 [0.9-1.2] 0.20    0.90 [0.77-1.06] 0.20   
Continuous to be breastfed
 6-11 months         
  No 1.0     1.0    
  Yes 1.2 [0.2-6.9] 0.27    0.69 [0.08-5.95] 0.74   
 12-17 months
  No 1.0     1.0    
  Yes 1.0[0.7-1.4] 0.11    0.90 [0.57-1.39] 0.63   
 18-23 months
  No 1.0     1.0    
  Yes 0.81 [0.62-1.05] 0.12    0.80 [0.62-1.03] 0.09   
Minimum acceptable diet
 All
  No 1.0     1.0    
  Yes 1.1 [0.9-1.2] 0.25    0.97 [0.84-1.12] 0.68   
 6-11 months
  No 1.0     1.0    
  Yes 1.1 [0.9-1.4] 0.15    1.1 [0.8-1.6] 0.38   
 12-17 months
  No 1.0     1.0    
  Yes 0.91 [0.75-1.11] 0.37    0.89 [0.70-1.12] 0.33   
 18-23 months
  No 1.0     1.0    
  Yes 0.78 [0.64-0.96] 0.02    0.72 [0.58-0.91] 0.005   
Birth weight proxy (mother’s perception of the baby size at birth)
 Large 1.0     1.0   1.0  
 Medium 1.5 [1.3-1.7] <0.001 1.5 [1.3-1.7] <0.001 1.5 [1.3-1.8] <0.001 1.6 [1.3-1.9] <0.001
 Small 2.7 [2.2- 3.2] <0.001 2.9 [2.4-3.6] <0.001 3.0 [2.4-3.7] <0.001 3.3 [2.6-4.1] <0.001
Parental characteristics
Maternal education
Secondary and above 1.0   1.0   1.0    
 Primary 2.1 [1.6-2.9] <0.001 1.6 [1.2-2.1] 0.002 1.7 [1.1-2.6] 0.01   
 No education 2.3 [1.7-3] <0.001 1.6[1.2-2.1] 0.001 2.0 [1.3-2.9] <0.001   
Mother’s age
 15-24 years 1.0     1.0    
 25-34 years 1.0 [0.9-1.1] 0.91    1.0 [0.9-1.2] 0.62   
 34-49 years 1.1 [1.0-1.3] 0.03    1.1 [0.9-1.3] 0.11   
Mother’s nutrition assessment vs current child’s nutrition status
 Correct 1.0     1.0    
 Uncorrect 3.4 [3.1-3.8] <0.001 3.3 [2.8-4] <0.001 1.2 [1.1-1.14] <0.001   
Marital status
 Live in couple ( married or not) Live alone (div/sep/widow) 1.0     1.0    
 Live alone (div/sep/widow) 1.1 [0.95-1.4] 0.10    1.5 [1.2-1.8] 0.001   
Household characteristics
 Household head education
  Secondary and above 1.0     1.0    
  Primary 1.7 [1.3-2.2] <0.001    1.7 [1.1-2.4] 0.01   
  No education 1.9 [1.4-2.4] <0.001    2.1 [1.4-3.0] <0.001   
 Household Size
  <5 1.0     1.0    
  >=5 1.0 [0.9-1.1] 0.1    1.0 [0.9-1.1] 0.6   
 #Children Under 5         
  1 or 2 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
   >2 1.2 [0.97-1.5] 0.08 1.45 [1.1-1.9] 0.003 1.3 [1.1-1.17] 0.03 1.5 [1.2-1.9] 0.001
Time to the Health centre
 <30 min 1.0     1.0    
 30-60 min 1.1 [0.9-1.3] 0.1    1.0 [0.8- 1.2] 0.4   
 >60 min 1.2 [1.1- 1.3] 0.01    1.2 [1.1- 1.5] 0.003   
 Arable land ownership
  Yes 1.0     1.0    
  No 1.0 [0.84-1.2] 0.99    1.1 [0.90-1.3] 0.36   
Source of drinking water
 Protected 1.0     1.0    
 unprotected 1.1 [0.96-1.2] 0.23    1.0 [0.93-1.2] 0.46   
Food security level
 Food secure 1.0     1.0    
 Low food insecure 1.1 [0.8-1.5] 0.34    1.1 [0.7-1.6] 0.62   
 Moderate food insecure 1.0 [0.8-1.3] 0.60    1.1 [0.8-1.4] 0.44   
 Severe food insecure 1.4 [1.2- 1.7] <0.001    1.6 [1.3- 2.1] <0.001   
SE status
 Richest 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Richer 1.4 [1.2-1.7] <0.001 1.2 [1.1-1.5] 0.01 1.4 [1.1-1.7] 0.003 1.3 [1.1-1.7] 0.03
  Middle 1.7 [1.5-2.0] <0.001 1.5 [1.21.7] 0.001 1.8[1.4-2.2] <0.001 1.6 [1.3-2.1] <0.001
  Poor 2 [1.6-2.3] <0.001 1.7 [1.4-2.1] <0.001 2 [1.6-2.5] <0.001 1.9 [1.5-2.4] <0.001
  Poorest 2.1[1.8-2.4] <0.001 2 [1.6-2.3] <0.001 2.4 [1.9-2.9] <0.001 2.4 [1.9-2.9] <0.001