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Table 4 Multilevel models of associations of bullying victimization, cyberbullying perpetration, and cyberbullying victimization with individual- and school-level factors

From: The role of family and school-level factors in bullying and cyberbullying: a cross-sectional study

  Significant bullying Cyberbullying perpetration Cyberbullying victimization
  adjusted OR 95% CI p value adjusted OR 95% CI p value adjusted OR 95% CI p value
Sex
 Male 1    1    1   
 Female 1.43 1.26206 1.619914 <0.000 0.38 .1972747 0.7490761 0.004 2.31 1.655916 3.226372 <0.000
Ethnicity
 White British 1    1    1   
 White other 1.16 .940071 1.425895 0.2 2.08 .766005 5.651757 0.1 1.38 .8434737 2.254222 0.2
 Asian/Asian British 0.99 .8358366 1.164221 0.9 0.77 .2594833 2.313221 0.6 0.81 .5255289 1.254694 0.3
 Black/Black British 1.17 .965876 1.407702 0.1 1.99 .7520412 5.260238 0.2 1.16 .7219747 1.852542 0.5
 Mixed ethnicity 1.25 .9936084 1.565785 0.06 3.06 1.142718 8.189537 0.03 0.64 .3147527 1.314576 0.2
 Other 1.02 .7956576 1.323007 0.8 0.44 .0543722 3.594754 0.4 1.11 .5857842 2.113013 0.7
Family structure
 Two parents 1    1    1   
 Single parent 1.19 1.044057 1.35345 0.009 1.01 .5154379 1.982387 0.1 1.44 1.042272 2.002339 0.03
Socio-economic status
 FAS medium 1    1    1   
 FAS low 1.34 .9822942 1.834434 0.06 3.85 1.182666 12.54253 0.02 2.31 1.197309 4.476614 0.01
 FAS high 1.09 .9617164 1.229097 0.2 1.82 .8781477 3.764663 0.1 1.37 .9698386 1.935498 0.07
Free School Meal
  Significant victimization    Cyberbullying perpetration    Cyberbullying victimization   
School sex adjusted OR 95% CI p value adjusted OR 95% CI p value adjusted OR 95% CI p value
 Mixed sex 1         
 Single sex F 0.79 .6177481 1.005942 0.056       
 Single sex M 1.38 .9574116 1.987917 0.08       
School size
 Total number of students          
Type of school
 Converter - Academy Mainstream 1    1    1   
 Voluntary aided 0.63 .4443628 .884386 0.008 0.50 .0595084 4.179261 0.5 0.72 .3356624 1.567076 0.4
 Community schools 0.97 .7399493 1.278299 0.8 3.89 1.447156 10.45903 0.007 1.63 .9985184 2.66383 0.05
 Academy - sponsor led 0.78 .5902065 1.044216 0.1 2.49 .8481433 7.335429 0.1 0.55 .279567 1.076904 0.08
 Foundation school 0.91 .7016586 1.172529 0.4 3.95 1.571424 9.932699 0.003 0.98 .5895541 1.61874 0.9
IDACI
 IDACI score          
Ofsted
 Outstanding 1    1      
 Good 1.26 1.021447 1.546847 0.03 1.61 .6172557 4.190908 0.3    
 Requires Improvement 1.12 .8000499 1.58324 0.5 2.79 .8696668 8.973181 0.08    
Value Added Score
 VA Value          
  1. The table shows the final model with intra-class correlation coefficients, student-level factors, and school-level factors associated to bullying victimization and cyberbullying outcomes