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Table 2 Association of select maternal and neonatal characteristics with low birth weight and macrosomia on neonates born in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia (n = 1152)

From: Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

Characteristics Total live births   LBW Macrosomia LBW, Macrosomia
Freq. Percent Freq.(RRR,95% CI) Freq(RRR,95% CI) P-value
Birth weight
 Low birth weight 121 10.5    
 Normal 954 82.8    
 Macrosomia 77 6.7    
Current age
 < 20 year 95 8.2 9(ref) 6(ref) ref
 20–24 year 328 28.5 32(1.0, 0.47–2.24) 20(0.96, 0.37–2.5) 0.94,0.94
 25–35 year 590 57.2 65(1.2, 0.57–2.48) 40(1.1, 0.45–2.67) 0.64,0.83
 ≥ 35 year 139 12.1 15(1.17, 0.49–2.8) 11(1.3, 0.46–3.65) 0.71,0.62
Number of children
 Primiparae 610 53.0 60(ref) 36(ref) ref
 2–4 children 424 36.8 39(0.94, 0.61–1.9) 32(1.29, 0.78–2.1) 0.80,0.30
 Multiple(≥5) 118 10.2 22(2.16, 1.26–3.7) 9(1.47, 0.68–3.17) 0.005,0.31
Birth interval
 Not applicable 537 46.6 52(ref) 29(ref) ref
 < Two years 127 11.0 10(0.8, 0.39–1.64) 9(1.31, 0.60–2.84) 0.56,0.49
 > Two years 488 42.4 59(1.32, 0.9–1.97) 39(1.57, 0.95–2.6) 0.16,0.07
Disease
 Yes 100 8.7 9(ref) 5(ref) ref
 No 1052 91.3 112(1.23, 0.6–2.5) 72(1.42, 0.56–3.6) 0.56,0.45
Maternal complications
 Yes 221 19.2 34(ref) 23(ref) ref
 No 930 80.8 86(0.52, 0.34–0.8) 54(0.48, 0.29–0.8) 0.003,0.006
Sex
 Male 610 52.9 54(ref) 50(ref) ref
 Female 542 47.1 67(1.4, 0.95–2.04) 27(0.6, 0.37–0.99) 0.082,0.046
Body mass index
 Underweight 119 10.6 14(ref) 4(ref) ref
 Normal 907 80.8 94(0.9, 0.49–1.63) 58(1.9, 0.68–5.45) 0.72,0.20
 Overweight 96 8.6 12(1.25, 0.54–2.8) 15(5.48, 1.7–17.2) 0.59,0.004
Gestational age
 Preterm 93 8.1 49(13.6,8.5–22) 1(0.3, 0.23–2.21) <0.001,0.12
 Term 990 85.9 71(ref) 66(ref)  
 Post term 69 6.0 1(0.2, 0.02–1.51) 10(2.22, 1.1–4.56) 0.23,0.03
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal 846 73.5 90(ref) 44(ref)  
 Cesarean section 241 20.9 27(1.15, 0.72–1.8) 29(2.5,1.54–4.16) 0.54,<0.001
 Instrumental 65 5.6 4(0.55, 0.2–1.56) 4(1.13, 0.4–3.27) 0.26,0.81
Antenatal follow up
 Yes 1131 98.2 113(ref) 76(ref)  
 No 21 1.8 8(5.55, 2.2–13.88) 1(1.03, 0.13–8.05) <0.001,0.975
  1. RRR relative risk ratio, CI confidence interval, LBW low birth weight, Freq.: Frequency