Skip to main content

Table 4 Comparison of scores on parent-reported questionnaires (i.e. gold standards) between cases and controls

From: Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants’ social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context: a prospective cohort study

  Cases (intervention based on overall assessment) Controls (no intervention based on overall assessment)    
  N Mean (sd) N Mean (sd) P-value Effect size Cohen’s d Spearman’s rho
Wellbeing of the child
 ASQ-SE 84 0.41a (1.1) 165 −0.21a (.84) <.001 .33 .306***
Competence of the parent
 PSI 86 23.4 (8.9) 169 18.3 (5.4) <.001 .06 .322***
 PSOC 85 36.6 (10.9) 167 30.2 (7.2) <.001 .30 .269***
 PSBCb 87 8.8 (1.0) 172 9.2 (0.8) .001 .04 −.208***c
 SF-12 mentalb 87 44.2 (11.1) 172 52.9 (7.8) <.001 .05 −.371***
 SF-12 physicalb 87 49.5 (8.6) 172 50.5 (8.2) .45 .01 −.169***
Partner
 FAD 82 21.2 (10.0) 167 15.3 (3.6) <.001 .10 .394***
 PSI (partner) 79 9.6 (3.2) 172 7.7 (2.4) <.001 .16 .269***
Social support
 SSL receivedb 87 15.2 (3.1) 172 15.7 (2.8) .17 .03 −.231***
 SSL shortage 86 8.4 (3.1) 172 6.8 (1.3) <.001 .23 .375***
 Loneliness score 87 2.7 (3.0) 172 1.1 (1.9) <.001 .17 .293***
 Social 87 1.1 (1.5) 172 0.6 (1.0) .002 .20 .375***
 Emotional 87 1.6 (1.8) 172 0.5 (1.2) <.001 .28 .394***c
Barriers or life events within care-giving context
 Deprivation Questionnaire 86 0.5 (1.4) 171 0.1 (0.3) .004 .49 .272***c
 PSI (life events) 87 1.5 (1.0) 172 1.3 (1.0) .08 .13 .212**
  1. aBased on Z-scores
  2. bLower scores reflect worse outcomes
  3. cSpearman’s rho was higher between the questionnaire scores and one of the other domains than with the intended corresponding domain
  4. **p-value < .05
  5. ***p-value <.01