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Table 2 Parent-report questionnaires used as gold standards for the domains of the family-centered care approach

From: Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants’ social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context: a prospective cohort study

Domain of the Family-centered approach Criterion Nr. of items Measuring Information on reliability and validity (and Cronbach’s alpha in our study) Cut-off scores References
Wellbeing of the child Ages and Stages Questionnaire Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) (versions 6, 12 and 18 months) 22–29 Social-emotional development of the child Cronbach’s alpha 0.82. Test-retest reliability 0.94. Sensitivity 0.75–0.89. Specificity 0.82–0.96.
(0.41–0.69)
High >2 sd [27]
Competence of the parent Dutch Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (4 subscales) 11 Parental competence and attachment Cronbach’s alpha 0.92–0.96. Good construct and criterion validity*
(0.82)
High >90th pct [28]
Parenting Tasks Checklist or Problem Setting and Behavior Checklist (PSBC)(Setting Self-Efficacy subscale) 14 Perceived ability of the primary caretaker in mastering problem situations Cronbach’s alpha 0.91
(0.89)
Low <10th pct [29]
Parental Sense of Competence scale (PSOC) 16 Competence of the parent Cronbach’s alpha 0.70–0.88. Test-retest reliability 0.46–0.82. Good construct validity.
(0.84)
High: >2 sd [30]
SF-12 Health Survey
SF-12 mental
SF-12 physical
12 Health status (physical and mental) of the parent Abbreviated version of the validated 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Correlations betwee SF-36 and SF-12 are high, i.e.0.94–0.97
(0.67–0.71)
Low: <10th pct
Low: <10th pct
[31]
Role of the partner McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) (General Functioning subscale) 12 Emotional relationships within families Cronbach’s alpha 0.66–0.81.Good construct validity.
(0.94)
High: >90th pct [32]
Dutch Parental Stress Index (PSI) (subscale partner) 5 Having a child and its effect on the relationship between partners Cronbach’s alpha 0.92–0.96. Good construct and criterion validity* (0.71) High: >90th pct [28]
Social support Social Support List, short version (SSL)
Received
Shortage
12 Social support Cronbach’s alpha 0.69–0.96, Construct and criterion validity sufficient*
(0.74–0.79)
Low: <2 sd
High: >90th pct
[33]
Loneliness-score
Social
Emotional
11 Feelings of overall, emotional and social loneliness Cronbach’s alpha 0.80–0.90. sufficient content validity.
(0.80–0.85)
High: >90th pct
High: >90th pct
High: >90th pct
[34]
Perceived barriers or life events within the care giving context of the child Questionnaire on the material or social deprivation of a child due to shortage of money (deprivation questionnaire) 15 The material or social deprivation of a child due to shortage of money Cronbach’s alpha 0. 89.
(0.63)
High: > 90th pct [35]
Dutch Parental Stress Index (PSI)(subscale life events) 17 Life events happened in the past year Cronbach’s alpha 0.92–0.96. Good construct and criterion validity* High: >2 sd [28]
  1. Sd: standard deviation
  2. Pct: percentile