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Table 2 Prevalence of diarrhoea and diagnostic accuracy of next-day maternal recall compared with diaper observation of stool as the ‘gold standard’ method

From: Stool frequency recording in severe acute malnutrition (‘StoolSAM’); an agreement study comparing maternal recall versus direct observation using diapers

Day Diarrhoea Prevalence ‘Gold Standard’a Specificity (95% CI) Sensitivity (95% CI) PPV (95% CI) NPV (95% CI)
1 20/52 (38%) 94% (80 to 99%) 75% (51 to 91%) 88% (65 to 97%) 86% (74 to 93%)
2 25/50 (50%) 80% (61 to 94%) 56% (35 to 76%) 74% (54 to 87%) 65% (53 to 75%)
  1. aData presented are those of children that had completed both diaper observations and maternal recall on each given day
  2. PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value