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Table 2 Methodologic characteristics of the included prognostic studies on risk factors for NEC

From: Risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates: a systematic review of prognostic studies

Author Country (year) Design Type of analysis N included Male (%) Study population Outcome NEC type Significant prognostic factors from multivariable analysis with p < 0.05
Boo et al. (2012) [21] Malaysia (2007) Retrospective Multivariable 3601 52% VLBW (≤1500 g) NEC II, III Maternal age, BW, surfactant, intrapartum antibiotics, indomethacin, surfactant, congenital pneumonia
Carter et al. (2008) [22] United States (unknown) Retrospective Multivariable 134 54% GA <35 weeks, BW <1500 g or requiring mechanical ventilation at birth NEC II, III Number of infections, ventilation
Drenckpohl et al. (2010) [36] United States (2002–2008) Retrospective Multivariable 324 54% GA 23–36 weeks NEC II, III Ethnicity, PROM, sepsis, H2 blockers in TPN
Faustini et al. (2003) [37] Italy (1999) Retrospective Multivariable 221 49% Live births of the university hospital in Rome NEC I, II Any neonatal pathological condition, first time feeding with formula, any invasive procedure
Gagliardi et al. (2008) [28] Italy (1999–2002) Prospective Multivariable 2035 51% VLBW (<1500 g), GA 23–37 weeks NEC-medical,
II, III Assisted ventilation, PDA, surfactant, Late-onset sepsis
Gephart et al. (2014) [18] United States (2007–2011) Retrospective Multivariable
(Prediction model)
35,013 50% BW <1500 g and GA < 36 weeks NEC-surgical,
II, III GA, outborn, ethnicity, dopamine, dobutamine or milrinone combined with hypotension, metabolic acidosis, probiotics, late sepsis, PRBC transfusion, 2 or more positive cultures (blood, urine, other), human milk at day 7 and 14 of life, unit NEC rate
Guthrie et al. (2003) [23] United States (1998–2000) Retrospective Multivariable 15,072 53% GA 23–34 weeks NEC-surgical,
II, III BW, antenatal glucocorticoids, umbilical vessel catheterization, assisted ventilation, type of delivery, exposed both glucocorticoids and indomethacin during first week of life, Apgar score 5 min.
Lee et al. (2016) [38] South Korea (2003–2014) Retrospective Multivariable 354 53% GA 23–31(+6) weeks NEC II, III Maternal blood NLR, multiparity, BW, GA
Luig et al. (2004) [25] Australia (1994–1999) Retrospective Multivariable 4649 55% All NICU admissions NEC II, III Placental abruption, GA (weeks), SGA, year of birth, hyaline membrane disease, hypertensive disease of pregnancy
Manogura et al. (2008) [39] United States (1997–2006) Prospective Multivariable 404 a Neonates with suspected IUGR NEC II, III BW, base deficit
Uauy et al. (1991) [24] United States (1988–1989) Prospective Multivariable 2681 a Infants admitted to one of the network centers <1500 g NEC II, III Center of birth, ethnicity/gender, BW, maternal haemorrhage, duration of ROM, cesarean section
Yamoto et al. (2016) [26] Japan (2006–2015) Retrospective Multivariable 323 53% BW <1000 g NEC, FIP, MRI II, III Gestational age of <26 weeks, severe cardiac malformations, not received EAP
Yee et al. (2012) [27] Canada (2003–2008) Retrospective Multivariable 16,669 54% GA <33 weeks Early-Onset NEC,
Late-Onset NEC
II, III GA, SGA, outborn/inborn, congenital anomalies, narcotic use in <3 days, postnatal glucocorticoids
Youn et al. (2015) [30] Korea (2013–2014) Prospective Multivariable 2326 50% VLBW (<1500 g) NEC II, III hypotension ≤1 week
  1. BW birth weight, EPO erythropoietin, FIP focal intestinal perforation, GA gestational age, IVH intraventricular hemorrhage, MRI meconium-related ileus, NCPAP nasal continuous positive airway pressure, NEC necrotizing enterocolitis, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, NLR neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, PDA patent ductus arteriosus, PRBC packed red blood cell, (P)ROM (premature) rupture of membranes, RDS respiratory distress syndrome, SGA small for gestational age, SNAP score for neonatal acute physiology, TPN total parental nutrition, VLBW very low birth weight
  2. Footnotes: a not available