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Table 3 Examples of unclear and confusing information in leaflets

From: Content analysis of nutritional information in paediatric oral health education leaflets

No. Leaflet content Potential for confusion/misinterpretation
6 “Foods that are high in sugar (such as lollies and soft drinks) or food acids (such as some fruit juices) can be bad for teeth as they can lead to cavities or loss of tooth enamel.” States ‘some’ fruit juices can be bad. Does not expand further on which types can be good or which can be bad.
12 Images to demonstrate food and drinks to “avoid” without any written message Use of images without clear labelling to identify what they are supposed to represent could lead to misinterpretation.
19 “Fruit Drinks (with added sugar)”
(Under title: “Stop”)
Fruit Drinks is an ambiguous term, as it could refer to juice, cordial, or a fruit-flavoured beverage. Also suggests drinks such as fruit juice with no added sugar are okay.
39 “This will help prevent ‘Early Childhood Caries’ which is decay caused by frequent, prolonged use of a bottle containing sweet liquids such as milk, juice or cordial.” AND
“Water (and milk in moderation) is the best thirst quencher.”
Contradicts by linking milk to causing Early Childhood Caries, then later states that milk in moderation is the best thirst quencher.
41 “Offer a diet high in fresh fruits and vegetables, wholegrain cereals, lean meats and dairy products.” AND
“Many healthy foods (such as fruit) contain high amounts of sugar.”
Contradicts by recommending fruit in diet, then later states that it is high in sugar.