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Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression analyses of factors associated with reasons for no-intent to receivea human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) series among unvaccinated female adolescents aged 13–17 years, National Immunization Survey - Teen, 2008–2012 (n = 12,274b)

From: Factors associated with parental reasons for “no-intent” to vaccinate female adolescents with human papillomavirus vaccine: National Immunization Survey - Teen 2008–2012

  Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)c
Factors Safety and Effectiveness Concernsd Systemic Barrierse Vaccine Misinformationf Lack of Knowledge about the Vaccineg Socio-cultural reasonsh
Age, years
 13 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 14 0.99 (0.78–1.27) 1.15 (0.86–1.52) 0.90 (0.74–1.10) 1.27 (0.95–1.70) 0.78 (0.54–1.13)
 15 0.94 (0.75–1.19) 0.93 (0.69–1.24) 0.88 (0.72–1.08) 1.37 (1.05–1.80) 1.57 (1.09–2.26)
 16 1.01 (0.79–1.30) 0.84 (0.63–1.13) 0.76 (0.61–0.93) 1.52 (1.13–2.05) 1.29 (0.82–2.01)
 17 1.00 (0.78–1.29) 1.01 (0.76–1.36) 0.69 (0.56–0.84) 1.10 (0.83–1.47) 1.52 (1.01–2.30)
Race/ethnicity
 White, non–Hispanic 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Black, non–Hispanic 0.75 (0.57–0.98) 1.05 (0.78–1.41) 0.98 (0.80–1.20) 1.42 (1.09–1.86) 1.63 (1.15–2.32)
 Hispanic 0.80 (0.59–1.10) 1.02 (0.75–1.38) 0.93 (0.73–1.19) 1.58 (1.14–2.17) 1.14 (0.72–1.81)
 Otheri 0.70 (0.52–0.94) 1.39 (1.00–1.94) 0.80 (0.62–1.02) 1.45 (1.04–2.00) 0.88 (0.54–1.44)
 Number of people in the household, per person over two 0.86 (0.81–0.91) 0.97 (0.91–1.04) 1.08 (1.03–1.14) 1.00 (0.92–1.09) 1.09 (0.98–1.22)
Annual household income, US $
 ≤35,000 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 35,001–75,000 1.13 (0.88–1.47) 0.64 (0.49–0.83) 1.03 (0.84–1.27) 1.20 (0.91–1.59) 1.62 (1.04–2.55)
 >75,000 1.10 (0.84–1.46) 0.62 (0.46–0.83) 1.04 (0.83–1.31) 0.95 (0.70–1.30) 1.91 (1.14–3.19)
Mother’s education      
 Less than high school 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 High school 1.52 (1.02–2.28) 0.77 (0.52–1.13) 1.12 (0.82–1.53) 0.95 (0.66–1.38) 1.18 (0.58–2.43)
 Some college 1.79 (1.20–2.68) 0.76 (0.53–1.10) 1.24 (0.91–1.68) 0.76 (0.53–1.08) 1.32 (0.67–2.59)
 College graduate 1.84 (1.21–2.81) 0.82 (0.56–1.20) 1.51 (1.10–2.06) 0.48 (0.34–0.69) 1.55 (0.74–3.24)
Mother’s marital status
 Otherj 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Married 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 1.18 (0.92–1.52) 1.09 (0.88–1.34) 0.88 (0.63–1.22) 0.71 (0.51–0.98)
Mother’s age, years
 ≤34 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 35–44 0.99 (0.71–1.36) 0.91 (0.63–1.33) 0.85 (0.64–1.13) 1.56 (1.06–2.31) 0.55 (0.31–0.98)
 ≥45 0.86 (0.62–1.21) 0.98 (0.67–1.43) 0.92 (0.69–1.23) 1.48 (1.00–2.22) 0.56 (0.31–1.01)
Health insurance statusk
 Private 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 SCHIP or Medicaid 1.21 (0.93–1.56) 0.97 (0.73–1.30) 0.83 (0.66–1.02) 0.73 (0.54–1.00) 1.34 (0.86–2.07)
 IHS or Military 1.20 (0.71–2.06) 0.76 (0.35–1.70) 0.75 (0.47–1.19) 0.83 (0.42–1.64) 1.63 (0.76–3.49)
 Other 0.88 (0.63–1.22) 0.99 (0.66–1.47) 0.87 (0.64–1.19) 1.32 (0.77–2.27) 1.31 (0.74–2.34)
 Uninsured 0.98 (0.69–1.38) 1.06 (0.73–1.52) 0.86 (0.65–1.15) 1.30 (0.91–1.88) 0.69 (0.38–1.25)
Healthcare provider recommended HPV vaccine
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.42 (0.36–0.49) 6.84 (5.25–8.91) 1.18 (1.02–1.35) 0.86 (0.69–1.07) 0.49 (0.38–0.63)
Survey Year
 2008 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2009 1.45 (1.09–1.93) 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 0.80 (0.64–0.99) 0.96 (0.71–1.30) 2.07 (1.39–3.07)
 2010 2.83 (2.16–3.70) 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 0.85 (0.69–1.04) 0.63 (0.47–0.85) 0.95 (0.60–1.52)
 2011 2.18 (1.68–2.83) 0.87 (0.65–1.16) 1.02 (0.83–1.25) 0.66 (0.50–0.87) 1.14 (0.75–1.72)
 2012 1.45 (1.09–1.93) 1.57 (1.17–2.09) 0.67 (0.53–0.84) 0.64 (0.47–0.87) 1.47 (0.95–2.27)
  1. a“no-intent” to initiate the HPV vaccine series in the next 12 months; bSample size with complete data on all the covariates in the logistic regression models
  2. cLogistic regression models include all the variables listed; dSafety and effectiveness concerns category included the cited reasons of safety and side effects, new vaccine, need more information, and effectiveness concerns; e Systemic barriers includes: health care provider not recommended, cost, vaccine not available, no doctor/obstetrician/gynecologist/doctor visit scheduled, and not a school requirement; fVaccine misinformation includes: not needed/not necessary, adolescent not sexually active, not appropriate age, and concern of increased sexual activity; g lack of knowledge about the vaccine included the response lack of knowledge; and h Sociocultural reasons included: family/parental decision, do not believe in immunizations, and against religion/orthodox
  3. iIncludes non-Hispanic other racial/ethnic groups and biracial; jNever married/widowed/divorced/separated; kSCHIP = State Children’s Health Insurance Program; IHS = Indian Health Service