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Table 2 The working definition of kininaru-kodomo (KK) obtained during the theoretical phase

From: A hybrid concept analysis of children of concern: Japanese healthcare professionals’ views of children at a high risk of developmental disability

Working definition Categories that constitute the working definition Codes Relevant references
Children who require special care due to supposed special healthcare needs derived from DDs, other developmental problems and child maltreatment Children with special healthcare needs due to possible DDs Children who are assessed to require special care due to possible DDs 32
Children with undiagnosed DDs that are not accompanied with intellectual delay 15
Children who have developmental problems including children with diagnosed DDs 16, 17, 18, 19, 28, 31, 32
Children with problems in behavior and sociability of which professionals are aware 16, 17, 18, 19, 28, 30, 31, 32
Preschool children with teachers worried about their education 15, 19, 20
Children with special healthcare needs due to other developmental problems Children with physical conditions that need medical management 31
Children with emotional instabilities of professional concern 19, 31
Children whose life skills are not developed for their age 15, 18
Children with special healthcare needs due to maltreatment Children raising professional concern regarding possible child abuse and neglect 30, 31, 32
Children with mothers with poor child-rearing skills 28, 30, 32
Children with parents with psychological, emotional, and economic problems 15, 30, 32