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Table 4 Multivariate analysis of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1–59 months

From: Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in children under five years of age in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in Brazil: a case control study

Variable First Model Final Model
Odds Ratio p-value 95 % CI Odds Ratio p-value 95 % CI
Household crowding 1.79 0.01 1.14–2.80 2.15 <0.01 1.46–3.18
Male gender 0.52 <0.01 0.37–0.72 0.53 <0.01 0.39–0.72
Not immunized against the influenza virus 2.80 <0.01 1.82–4.30 3.59 <0.01 2.62–4.91
Age < 1 year 1.33 0.23 0.83–2.14 --- --- ---
Exclusive breastfeeding 0.73 0.07 0.52–1.03 --- --- ---
Undernutrition (weight-for-age ratio ≤ 2 z score) 1.50 0.21 0.79–2.85 --- --- ---
Family income (≤1 minimum wage) 1.16 0.37 0.83–1.62 --- --- ---
Maternal age 1.36 0.41 0.65–2.85 --- --- ---
Maternal education 1.01 0.94 0.71–1.43 --- --- ---
Smoking by household members 0.96 0.87 0.63–1.46 --- --- ---
Maternal smoking 1.53 0.27 0.71–3.30 --- --- ---
Constant 0.77 0.17 0.54–1.11 0.78 0.06 0.60–1.01