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Table 2 Distribution of the child-related factors and bivariate analysis for the risk of acquiring pneumonia

From: Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in children under five years of age in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in Brazil: a case control study

Variables Cases (n = 407)
N (%)
Controls (n = 407)
N(%)
p-value OR 95 % CI
Sex Female 194 (47.7) 141 (34.6)   1  
Male 213 (52.3) 266 (65.4) <0.01 0.58 0.44–0.77
Age ≥1 year 241 (59.2) 324 (79.6)   1  
<1 year 166 (40.8) 83 (20.4) <0.01 2.68 1.97–3.67
Birth weighta >2500 g 327 (87.9) 329 (85.5)   1  
<2500 g 45 (12.1) 56 (14.5) 0.32 0.80 0. 53–1.23
Prematurityb No 346 (91.0) 349 (89.3)   1  
Yes 34 (9.0) 42 (10.7) 0.40 0.82 0.51–1.31
Respiratory disease /previous allergy No 367 (90.2) 374 (91.9)   1  
Yes 40 (9.8) 33 (8.1) 0.40 1.22 0.76–1.99
Previous hospitalizationc No 326 (81.7) 355 (87.2)   1  
Yes 73 (18.3) 52 (12.8) 0.03 1.53 1.04–2.24
Exclusive Breastfeeding (4–6 months)d Yes 203 (49.9) 212 (52.8)   1  
No 204 (50.1) 192 (47.2) 0.53 1.09 0.83–1.44
Nutritional status (Weight-for-age Ratio) d (> -2 z score) 362 (89.2.) 383 (94.1)   1  
(≤ -2 z score) 44 (10.8) 24 (5.9) 0.01 1.93 115–3.23
10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine Vaccinated 254 (62.4.) 258 (63.4)   1  
unvaccinated 153 (37.6.) 149 (36.6) 0.77 1.04 0.78–1.38
Influenza virus vaccine Vaccinated 172 (42.3) 289 (71.0)   1  
unvaccinated 235 (57.7) 118 (29.0) <0.01 3.34 2.50–4.48
  1. Exclusive Breastfeeding when the child had been exclusively breastfed during 4 months
  2. Nutritional status - according to a-2 z-score, the weight-for-age ratio was classified into two categories: very low or low weight for age and normal weight for age
  3. 10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine children were considered to have been vaccinated if they had received at least two doses prior to their first birthday or one dose after their first birthday
  4. Influenza virus vaccine children who were immunized according to the immunization card received: a) at least one dose if they received the prime vaccination previously and had been immunized with two doses Or b) two doses of the prime vaccination Children under 6 months of age and those over 6 months of age who had not been immunized were classified as unvaccinated
  5. aData missing in 35 cases (4.3 %);bData missing 43cases (5.3 %);cData missing in 8 cases (1.0 %); dData missing in 1 cases (0.1 %)