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Table 1 Demographics and clinical features of the children according to their compliance with recommendations and period of the study (numbers are percentages with denominators mentioned at the top of the column, except for those with superscript letters) with univariate and multivariate analyses for factors associated with prescription non-compliance (by period)

From: Compliance with the current recommendations for prescribing antibiotics for paediatric community-acquired pneumonia is improving: data from a prospective study in a French network

  Period 1 Period 2
Variables Total N = 3034 Compliant N = 1562 Non-compliant N = 1472 Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Total N = 293 Compliant N = 237 Non-compliant N = 56 Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR 95 % CI p aOR 95 % CI p OR 95 % CI p aOR 95 % CI p
Sex ratio 1.16 1.21 1.11    0.50     1 1.1 0.8    0.34    
Age
 Median yrs [IQR] 3 [1.4–5] 3.4 [2–5.4] 2.3 [1–4.5] 0.2 0.1–0.3 <0.001*     3.6 [1.9–5.7] 3.4 [1.7–5.1] 4.5 [2.9–7.8] 1.1 1.01–1.2 0.008 1.2 1–1.3 0.007**
10.7 5.7–20.1
 Age <1 year (%) 16.6 8.3 24.4 3.7 3–4.7 <0.001 3 2.4–3.9 <0.001 14 14.7 10.7 1 - -    
 Age >1 year (%) 83.4 91.7 74.6 1 - - 1 - - 86 85.3 89.3 1.4 0.6–3.6 0.44    
Severity signs
 Respiratory distress (%) 28.5 20.5 36.5 2.3 1.9–2.7 <0.001 1 0.8–1.3 0.71 26.7 27.4 23.6 0.8 0.4–1.6 0.56    
 Ill appearance (%) 31.3 22.1 39.9 2.5 2.1–2.9 <0.001 1.3 1.1–1.6 0.01 28.7 27.7 32.7 1.3 0.7–2.4 0.46    
Risk factors for pneumococcal infectiona (%) 5.7 3.5 8.1 2.4 1.8–3.5 <0.001 1.4 0.95–2.1 0.09 6.8 3.4 21.4 7.8 2.9–21.1 <0.001 4.1 1.3–12.7 0.02
Centres (%)
 Centre 1 5.4 53.6 46.4 1 - - 1 - -          
 Centre 2 12.4 60.6 39.4 0.8 0.5–1.1 0.13 0.9 0.5–1.3 0.37 34 85 15 1 - - 1 - -
 Centre 3 20.5 48.8 51.2 1.2 0.9–1.7 0.27 1.2 0.8–1.8 0.48 32 87 13 2.4 1.2–4.9 0.01 1.3 0.6–3.1 0.53
 Centre 4 13.1 36.6 63.4 2 1.4–2.9 <0.001 2 1.3–3 0.002          
 Centre 5 4.8 22,1 77.9 4.1 2.4–6.9 <0.001 1.7 0.9–3.1 0.06          
 Centre 6 12.3 65.5 34.5 0.6 0.4–0.9 0.009 0.6 0.4–0.9 0.02          
 Centre 7 9.6 47.8 52.2 1.3 0.9–1.9 0.23 0.9 0.6–1.5 0.79 34 70 30 0.8 0.4–1.9 0.68 0.6 0.2–1.5 0.19
 Centre 8 0.6 47.1 52.2 1.3 0.5–3.5 0.61 0.7 0.2–2.5 0.61          
 Centre 9 17.8 63.5 36.5 0.7 0.5–0.9 0.02 0.7 0.5–1.1 0.17          
 Centre 10 3.4 25.2 74.8 3.4 2–6 <0.001 1.9 1–3.6 0.05          
Season
 Winter 25.3 25.3 25.2 1 - - 1    78.5 76.4 87.5 1 -   1 - -
 Spring 17 18.4 15.6 0.7 0.6–0.9 0.01 0.7 0.5–0.9 0.012 21.5 23.6 12.5 0.5 0.2–1.1 0.07 0.5 0.2–1.4 0.18
 Summer 15 15.4 14.7 0.8 0.7–1.6 0.15 0.8 0.6–1.1 0.25 - - - - - -    
 Fall 42.6 42.4 42.7 0.9 0.7–1.1 0.19 0.9 0.8–1.1 0.7 - - - - - -    
Biologyb (%)
 Leucocytes ≥10,000/mm3 74.2 76.2 73.5 0.9 0.6–1.1 0.26     68.9 72.9 61.1 0.6 0.2–1.4 0.21    
 CRP ≥40 mg/L 53.9 55.6 53.8 0.9 0.7–1.1 0.18     55.2 55.8 54.1 0.9 0.4–2.1 0.86    
 PCT ≥2 mg/mL 44.7 50 43.7 0.9 0.5–1.4 0.58     36.4 38.4 33.3 0.8 0.2–2.9 0.73    
 Positive blood culture 3.6 3.2 3.8 1.2 0.5–2.8 0.71     4.9 2.9 7.7 3.2 0.3–39.6 0.33    
Prescriber (%)
 Resident           53.4 44.4 55.5 1 - - 1 - -
 Fellow           21.2 22.3 16.7 0.9 0.4–2.2 0.87 0.6 0.2–1.5 0.29
 Senior           25.4 22.3 38.9 2.2 1.4–4.3 0.02 1.7 0.8–3.5 0.19
Hospitalization (%) 32.2 12.4 51.9 7.6 6.2–9.2 <0.001 5.7 4.6–7.2 <0.001 26.7 22 46.3 3.1 1.6–5.7 <0.001 4.1 2–8.4 <0.001
 PICU 6.2 7.3 5.7        3.8 1.9 7.7       
Outcome (%)
 Apyrexia at 48 hc 89.8 90 89.6 0.9 0.7–1.3 0.77     81.7 83.1 78.1 0.7 0.3–2 0.53    
 Death 0.2 0.2 0.2 1 0.2–5.3 0.9     0.7 0.8 0       
  1. Table 1 legend: OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, 95%CI 95 % confidence interval, IQR interquartile range, PICU Paediatric Intensive Care Unit
  2. *age was non-linear in period 1 and was transformed to a second degree polynomial as follows: x1 = ln(X) − 0.3 and x2 = X0,5 − 1.2 (where: X = age/1000) in the univariate analysis, age was entered as a dichotomous variable (around 1 year) in the multivariate analysis
  3. **age was normally distributed in period 2 and was entered as a continuous variable in the multivariate analysis
  4. arisk factors for pneumococcal infection were reported for 2992 children during period 1
  5. bin period 1, white blood cell counts (WBC) were done for 1228 children, C-reactive protein (CRP) for 1394, procalcitonin (PCT) for 396, and blood cultures for 838 children; in period 2, WBC was done for 106 children, CRP for 114, and PCT for 44
  6. capyrexia occurring at 48 h was reported for 1640 children during period 1 and 115 children during period 2