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Table 4 Celiac disease risk in relation to each specific maternal and perinatal condition for all children and divided for boys and girls, respectively (Results from the multivariate analysis)

From: Maternal and perinatal conditions and the risk of developing celiac disease during childhood

Maternal and perinatal exposures All children   Boys Girls
OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value
Maternal age <25 1.0   1.0   1.0  
25–29 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.01 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.07 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.04
30–34 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.75 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.87 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.52
≥35 0.8 (0.7–0.9) <0.001 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.01 0.8 (0.7–0.9) <0.001
Disposable income
(per 100 SEK)
Low 1.0   1.0   1.0  
Middle 1.2 (1.1–1.2) <0.001 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.01 1.2 (1.1–1.3) <0.001
High 0.9 (0.8–0.9) <0.001 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.01 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.002
Body mass index (kg/m2) 18.50–24.99 1.0   1.00    
<18.50 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.85 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 0.90   
25.00–29.99 0.9 (0.9–0.9) 0.04 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.03   
≥30 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.09 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.04   
Parity (n) 1 1.0   1.00   1.00  
  2 1.2 (1.1–1.2) <0.001 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 0.01 1.2 (1.1–1.2) <0.001
  ≥3 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.58 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.34 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.53
Duration of pregnancy
(weeks)
37–45 1.0   1.00   1.00  
<37 0.9 (0.8–1.2) 0.86 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.62 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.90
Premature rupture of the membrane No 1.00   1.00    
Yes 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.02 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.01   
Mode of delivery Vaginal    1.00    
Elective    1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.02   
Infant birth weight (grams) ≥2500 1.0   1.00    
1500–2499 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.73 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 0.97   
<1500 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.27 0.3 (0.1–0.9) 0.03   
Sex Male 1.0      
Female 1.8 (1.7–1.9) <0.001     
Apgar score
at 5 min
≥7 1.0     1.00  
<7 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.02    0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.003
Maternal infectionsa No 1.0     1.00  
Yes 1.1 (1.1–1.2) <0.001    1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.006
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, SEK Swedish Krona
  2. Multivariate logistic regression including all variables found to be statistically significant (p <0.05) in the bivariate analyses (Table 3)
  3. aIncludes both urinary tract infections and other maternal infections