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Table 2 Maternal and perinatal characteristics for children, with and without celiac disease (CD) born in Sweden during 1991–2009

From: Maternal and perinatal conditions and the risk of developing celiac disease during childhood

Descriptives CD Cases
N (%) (Total = 6596)
Not CD cases
N (%) (Total = 1 912 204)
Maternal age (years) <25 1 155 (17.5) 329 634 (17.3)
  25–29 2 527 (38.3) 639 023 (33.6)
  30–34 2 077 (31.5) 612 299 (32.2)
  ≥35 837 (12.7) 322 300 (16.9)
Disposable income (Per 100 SEK) Low 2 224 (33.8) 627 366 (33.4)
Middle 2 558 (38.9) 625 586 (33.4)
High 1 799 (27.3) 627 253 (33.4)
Smoking during pregnancy No 5 423 (86.4) 1 560 509 (86.6)
  Yes 853 (13.6) 240 677 (13.4)
Body mass index (kg/m2) <18.5 148 (2.8) 40 844 (2.7)
  18.5–24.9 3 494 (65.8) 977 145 (64.1)
  25.0–29.9 1 190 (22.4) 358 566 (23.5)
  >30 481 (9.1) 147 426 (9.7)
Parity (n) 1 2 692 (40.8) 806 990 (42.3)
  2 2 657 (40.3) 695 173 (36.5)
  ≥3 1 247 (18.9) 403 408 (21.2)
Duration of pregnancy (weeks) 37–45 6 256 (94.9) 1 788 057 (93.9)
  <37 335 (5.1) 115 524 (6.1)
Premature rupture of the membrane No 6 546 (99.2) 1 883 116 (98.8)
  Yes 50 (0.8) 22 482 (1.2)
Mode of delivery Vaginal 5 659 (85.8) 1 602 943 (84.9)
  Caesarean 937 (14.2) 284 634 (15.1)
Caesarean delivery Elective 434 (46.3) 134 351 (47.2)
  Emergency 503 (53.7) 150 283 (52.8)
Infant birth weight (grams) <1500 30 (0.5) 14 049 (0.7)
  1500–2499 212 (3.2) 67 129 (3.5)
  ≥2500 6 336 (96.3) 1 818 885 (95.4)
Sex Male 2 412 (36.6) 980 289 (51.4)
  Female 4 184 (63.4) 925 309 (48.6)
Small for gestational age No 6 225 (97.8) 1 800454 (97.7)
  Yes 140 (2.2) 43 148 (2.3)
Apgar score at 5 min ≥7 6 513 (99.4) 1 869 284 (98.9)
  <7 42 (0.6) 20 894 (1.1)
Neonatal infections No 6 521 (98.9) 1 885 798 (98.9)
  Yes 75 (1.14) 19 800 (1.0)
Maternal infectionsa No 5 670 (86.0) 1 657 790 (87.0)
  Yes 926 (14.0) 247 808 (13.0)
  1. SEK Swedish Krona
  2. aMaternal infections; urinary tract infection and other maternal infections