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Table 3 Association between type of delivery, asthma and rhinitis according to parental history of asthma (n = 672)

From: Increased risk of allergic rhinitis among children delivered by cesarean section: a cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort

Variables   No parental history of asthma (n = 496)   Parental history of asthma (n = 176) Effect modification
  N (%) OR (95 % CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95 % CI)
Adjusted
N (%) OR (95 % CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95 % CI)
aAdjusted
p-value**
Active asthma
Cesarean delivery 29 (12.2 %) 1.18 (0.68–2.07) 1.31 (0.71–2.41) 19 (20.4 %) 1.07 (0.72–1.40) 1.14 (0.43–2.99) 0.78
Vaginal delivery 27 (10.5 %) 18 (19,4 %)
Severe asthma
Cesarean delivery 18 (7.6 %) 1.77 (0.85–3.67) 2.14 (0.90–5.06) 11 (12.4 %) 1.33 (0.82–2.18) 2.20 (0.96–5.08) 0.31
Vaginal delivery 11 (4.3 %) 9 (10.3 %)
Chronic rhinitis
Cesarean delivery 99 (41.6 %) 1.84 (1.26–2.64) 1.43 (0.94–2.18) 39 (44.8 %) 1.09 (0.60–1.97) 1.56 (1.04–2.34) 0.10
Vaginal delivery 72 (27.9 %) 38 (42.7 %)
Allergic rhinitis
Cesarean delivery 63 (26.6 %) 1.71 (1.11–2.63) 1.46 (0.91–2.36) 29 (33.3 %) 1.61 (0.63–3.13) 1.60 (1.01–2.55) 0.02
Vaginal delivery 45 (17.4 %) 21 (23.6 %)
  1. ** P-value for effect modification by parental history of asthma in multivariable models
  2. a Adjusted for gestational age, weight at birth, breastfeeding up to the 4th month, mother’s smoking during pregnancy, family income, mother’s schooling level, parity, number of persons who sleep in the room with the child, attendance to nursery to the age of 2 years, pneumonia ever