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Table 4 Description of tracheal intubation associated events

From: The number of tracheal intubation attempts matters! A prospective multi-institutional pediatric observational study

  1 attempt (n = 1256) 2 attempts (n = 503) ≥ 3 attempts (n = 321)
Severe TIAEsa
 Cardiac arrest with ROSCb 12 (1.0 %) 8 (1.6 %) 11 (3.4 %)
 Cardiac arrest without ROSC 3 (0.2 %) 4 (0.8 %) 1 (0.3 %)
 Esophageal intubation without immediate recognition 2 (0.2 %) 5 (1.0 %) 5 (1.6 %)
 Emesis with aspiration 5 (0.4 %) 6 (1.2 %) 16 (0.8 %)
 Hypotension requiring treatment 42 (3.3 %) 20 (4.0 %) 7 (2.2 %)
 Laryngospasm 1 (0.1 %) 1 (0.2 %) 2 (0.6 %)
 Malignant hyperthermia 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)
 Pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum 2 (0.2 %) 0 (0.0 %) 2 (0.6 %)
 Dental trauma 1 (0.1 %) 2 (0.4 %) 0 (0.0 %)
Non-severe TIAEs
 Mainstem bronchial intubation 25 (2.0 %) 24 (4.8 %) 17 (5.3 %)
 Esophageal intubation with immediate recognition 10 (0.8 %) 74 (14.7 %) 88 (27.4 %)
 Emesis without aspiration 9 (0.7 %) 3 (0.6 %) 4 (1.3 %)
 Dysrhythmia (includes sinus bradycardia) 10 (0.8 %) 15 (3.0 %) 9 (2.8 %)
 Hypertension requiring treatment 1 (0.1 %) 2 (0.4 %) 0 (0.0 %)
 Epistaxis 2 (0.2 %) 2 (0.4 %) 1 (0.3 %)
 Lip trauma 1 (0.1 %) 3 (0.6 %) 5 (1.6 %)
 Medication Error 1 (0.1 %) 0 (0.0 %) 1 (0.3 %)
 Pain/Agitation requiring additional medication with delay in tracheal intubation 3 (0.2 %) 5 (1.0 %) 1 (0.3 %)
  1. Note: If the patient had more than one course before successful intubation (e.g., switch from direct laryngoscopy approach to laryngeal mask airway), then only the first course was included for analysis. Therefore there were patients who had one attempt but still had an esophageal intubation
  2. aTIAEs denotes tracheal intubation associated events
  3. bROSC denotes return of spontaneous circulation