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Table 1 Patient characteristics categorized by the number of TI attempts (n = 2080)

From: The number of tracheal intubation attempts matters! A prospective multi-institutional pediatric observational study

  1 attempt (n = 1256) 2 attempts (n = 503) ≥ 3 attempts (n = 321) p-value
Age in years median (IQR) 1 (1–6) 1 (0–6) 0 (0–4) 0.039
< 1 year 530 (42 %) 226 (45 %) 163 (51 %)  
1–7 years 459 (37 %) 173 (34 %) 99 (31 %)  
≥ 8 years 267 (21 %) 104 (21 %) 59 (18 %)  
Weight in kg median (IQR) 10 (5–20) 10 (5–19) 9 (4–18) 0.017
Male gender, n (%) 710 (57 %) 299 (60 %) 193 (61 %) 0.33
Patient categorya
 Respiratory 685 (57 %) 294 (61 %) 168 (54 %)  
 Cardiac 174 (15 %) 57 (12 %) 48 (16 %)  
 Neurological 103 (9 %) 37 (8 %) 23 (7 %)  
 Sepsis/Shock 59 (5 %) 25 (5 %) 23 (7 %)  
 Trauma 18 (2 %) 7 (1 %) 10 (3 %)  
 Other/Missing 153 (13 %) 64 (13 %) 37 (12 %)  
Indicationsb
 Oxygenation failure 736 (59 %) 299 (59 %) 183 (57 %) 0.79
 Ventilation failure 723 (58 %) 304 (60 %) 206 (64 %) 0.08
Upper airway obstruction 225 (18 %) 96 (19 %) 56 (17 %) 0.80
History of difficult airway 168 (13 %) 75 (15 %) 61 (19 %) 0.04
Sign of upper airway obstructionc 153 (12 %) 74 (15 %) 64 (20 %) 0.001
  1. P-value was calculated by Chi-square test
  2. IQR denotes interquartile range
  3. aDiagnostic category was missing in 95 encounters
  4. bEach encounter may have more than one respiratory indication
  5. cPhysical sign was reported by providers at the time of tracheal intubation