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Table 1 Maternal and perinatal characteristics for children admitted to hospital once and more than once for acute gastroenteritis, NSW 2001–2011

From: Gestational age, mode of birth and breastmilk feeding all influence acute early childhood gastroenteritis: a record-linkage cohort study

Variable Number of AGE hospital admissions Total (N = 893,360)
  None (N = 852,086) One (N = 38,085) Two or more (N = 3189)
  N Row %a N Row %a N Row %a N Col. %b
Mode of birth         
 Vaginal birth – spontaneous onset of labour 445,535 95.6 18,929 4.1 1469 0.3 465,933 52.2
 Vaginal birth – labour induction 173,429 95.1 8220 4.5 722 0.4 182,371 20.4
 Caesarean section – pre-labour 132,892 95.3 6017 4.3 561 0.4 139,470 15.6
 Caesarean section – spontaneous onset of labour 57,537 94.9 2820 4.7 252 0.4 60,609 6.8
 Caesarean section – labour induction 42,693 94.9 2099 4.7 185 0.4 44,977 5.0
Gestational age (weeks)         
 33–36 36,508 94.4 1952 5.0 225 0.6 38,685 4.3
 37–38 188,164 95.0 8985 4.5 834 0.4 197,983 22.2
 39–42 627,414 95.5 27,148 4.1 2130 0.3 656,692 73.5
Maternal age (years)         
 <20 31,020 92.8 2154 6.4 247 0.7 33,421 3.7
 20–24 118,300 94.0 6902 5.5 676 0.5 125,878 14.1
 25–29 235,736 95.1 11,235 4.5 926 0.4 247,897 27.8
 30–34 282,186 95.8 11,464 3.9 853 0.3 294,503 33.0
 35–39 153,271 96.4 5266 3.3 406 0.3 158,943 17.8
 40+ 31,573 96.5 1064 3.3 81 0.2 32,718 3.7
Primiparae 353,744 95.0 17,306 4.6 1468 0.4 372,518 41.7
Australian Born 598,374 95.0 29,024 4.6 2566 0.4 629,964 70.5
Socio-economic advantage         
 1st Quintile (Highest) 173,516 96.1 6605 3.7 457 0.3 180,578 20.2
 2nd Quintile 162,516 95.9 6420 3.8 501 0.3 169,437 19.0
 3rd Quintile 178,752 95.5 7823 4.2 604 0.3 187,179 21.0
 4th Quintile 175,417 94.9 8557 4.6 775 0.4 184,749 20.7
 5th Quintile (Lowest) 161,885 94.4 8680 5.1 852 0.5 171,417 19.2
Smoking during pregnancy 126,685 94.2 7101 5.3 686 0.5 134,472 15.1
Diabetes 53,822 95.3 2420 4.3 220 0.4 56,462 6.3
Hypertension 74,126 94.5 3956 5.0 364 0.5 78,446 8.8
Baby’s sex - Male 436,304 95.2 20,085 4.4 1724 0.4 458,113 51.3
Year of birth         
 Prior to 1 July 2007 473,607 93.6 29,552 5.8 2662 0.5 505,821 56.6
 From 1 July 2007 378,479 97.7 8533 2.2 527 0.1 387,539 43.4
Birthweight z-score         
 < -2 16,064 94.1 897 5.3 117 0.7 17,078 1.9
 [-2,-1) 113,474 94.9 5570 4.7 482 0.4 119,526 13.4
 [-1,0) 305,914 95.3 13,855 4.3 1154 0.4 320,923 35.9
 [0,1) 281,683 95.5 12,173 4.1 994 0.3 294,850 33.0
 [1,2) 108,087 95.7 4467 4.0 374 0.3 112,928 12.6
 ≥2 26,864 95.8 1123 4.0 68 0.2 28,055 3.1
Admission to SCN/NICU 111,483 94.2 6205 5.2 663 0.6 118,351 13.3
5 Minute Apgar Score < 7 10,947 94.5 584 5.0 59 0.5 11,590 1.3
Infection in birth admissionc 17,475 94.1 991 5.3 109 0.6 18,575 2.1
Birth admission length of stay z-score         
 < -1 81,018 96.3 2893 3.4 204 0.2 84,115 9.4
 [-1,0) 346,181 95.7 14,527 4.0 1171 0.3 361,879 40.5
 [0,1) 351,360 95.2 16,317 4.4 1371 0.4 369,048 41.3
 ≥ 1 73,527 93.9 4348 5.6 443 0.6 78,318 8.8
Formula-only feeding*         
 Yes 52,360 96.4 1840 3.4 127 0.2 54,327 11.9
 No 393,156 97.4 9936 2.5 660 0.2 403,752 88.1
  1. *Complete cases only (n = 458,079), SCN Special Care Nursery, NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Col. Column
  2. aPer cent of all children in the row. bPer cent of all children in the study population. cIncludes AGE or ICD-10-AM: P35-P39