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Table 5 Factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia by multilevel logistic regression analysis, EDHS 2011

From: Exploring spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis

Variables Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
AOR(95 % CI) AOR(95 % CI) AOR(95 % CI)
Individual level factors    
 Child factors    
Child’s age(months)    
 0–11 1.00   1.00
 12–23 4.13(3.23–5.27)   4.12(3.22–5.26)
 24–35 6.47(5.07–8.25)   6.61(5.17–8.44)
 36–47 6.37(5.00–8.10)   6.44(5.10–8.20)
 48–59 5.58(4.38–7.12)   5.65(4.43–7.21)
Sex    
 Female 1.00   1.00
 Male 1.20(1.08–1.37)   1.20(1.08–1.33)
Immunization    
 Complete 1.00   1.00
 Incomplete 1.01(0.76–1.34)   1.01(0.76–1.34)
Anemia    
 Non-anemic 1.00   1.00
 Mild 1.36(1.18–1.56)   1.43(1.24–1.64)
 Moderate 1.64(1.42–1.89)   1.76(1.52–2.03)
 Severe 2.93(2.14–4.01)   3.23(2.35–4.43)
Maternal/household factors    
Mother’s age (years)    
 15–24 1.00   1.00
 25–34 0.95(0.82–1.10)   0.96(0.83–1.11)
 35–49 0.92(0.76–1.10)   0.93(0.77–1.12)
Maternal education    
 No education 1.00   1.00
 Primary 0.88(0.76–1.02)   0.90(0.78–1.04)
 Secondary 0.64(0.41–1.01)   0.70(0.44–1.10)
 Higher 0.43(0.19–0.97)   0.42(0.18–0.94)
Mother’s BMI (kg/m2)    
 18.5–24.9 1.00   1.00
 <18.5 1.08(0.95–1.22)   1.13(1.00–1.28)
 > = 25.0 0.65(0.49–0.85)   0.69(0.52–0.90)
 Birth interval    
 <24 months 1.00   1.00
 > = 24 months 1.72(1.50–1.98)   1.68(1.46–1.93)
Number of under five children    
 One 1.00   1.00
 Two 0.88(0.77–1.01)   0.90(0.79–1.03)
 Three 0.88(0.73–1.06)   0.95(0.79–1.14)
 Four 0.79(0.58–1.19)   0.90(0.61–1.33)
Head of household    
 Female 1.00   1.00
 Male 1.14(0.98–1.32)   1.18(1.01–1.38)
Father’s education level    
 No education 1.00   1.00
 Primary 0.98(0.87–1.11)   0.98(0.87–1.12)
 Secondary 0.64(0.49–0.85)   0.74(0.56–0.99)
 Higher 0.50(0.33–0.76)   0.58(0.38–0.89)
Family size    
 ≤4 1.00   1.00
 5–7 1.03(0.88–1.20)   1.03(0.88–1.20)
 8–10 1.05(0.86–1.27)   1.05(0.86–1.28)
 ≥11 1.21(0.86–1.71)   1.20(0.84–1.70)
Wealth index    
 Richest 1.00   1.00
 Richer 1.74(1.39–2.17)   1.46(1.12–1.90)
 Middle 1.57(1.25–1.98)   1.24(0.94–1.64)
 Poorer 1.82(1.45–2.29)   1.42(1.08–1.88)
 Poorest 1.73(1.39–2.17)   1.43(1.08–1.89)
Community level factors    
 Place of residence    
  Urban   1.00 1.00
  Rural   1.79(1.49–2.16) 1.18(0.88–1.60)
 Poverty rate    
  Low   1.00 1.00
  High   1.02(0.88–1.20) 1.01(0.84–1.23)
Region    
 Dire Dawa   1.00 1.00
 Tigray   1.63(1.23–2.16) 1.58(1.09–2.29)
 Affar   1.65(1.23–2.21) 1.27(0.86–1.86)
 Amhara   1.62(1.23–2.15) 1.50(1.04–2.17)
 Oromiya   1.01(0.77–1.32) 1.13(0.79–1.62)
 Somali   0.80(0.59–1.09) 0.68(0.46–1.01)
 Benishangul-Gumuz   1.49(1.11–2.01) 1.71(1.16–2.52)
 SNNP   1.17(0.89–1.54) 1.43(1.00–2.06)
 Gambela   0.57(0.47–0.78) 0.57(0.37–0.86)
 Harari   0.73(0.52–1.01) 0.72(0.46–1.12)
 Addis Ababa   0.78(0.53–1.14) 1.03(0.57–1.83)
 Improved latrine facility    
  Yes   1.00 1.00
  No   1.27(1.07–1.51) 1.26(1.01–1.59)
 Drinking water supply    
  Piped water   1.00 1.00
  Other improved   1.13(0.97–1.32) 1.03(0.85–1.25)
  Unimproved   1.06(0.87–1.29) 1.04(0.87–1.24)
  1. Model 1 is empty model, 1.00 = reference