Skip to main content

Table 1 Variables definition

From: Exploring spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis

Individual-level factors  
Child factors  
 Age of child (months) Categorized into (1) 0–11; (2) 12–23; (3) 24–35; (4) 36–47; and (5) 48–59.
 Sex of child Categorized into (1) female and (2) male.
 Birth weight (g) Categorized into (1) low < 2500 and (2) normal ≥ 2500.
 Type of birth Categorized into (1) single and (2) multiple birth
 Immunization Categorized into (1) incomplete or (2) complete
 Anemia Categorized into (1) non-anemic; (2) mild; (3) moderate; (4) sever
Maternal/household factors  
 Maternal age in years Categorized into (1) 15–24; (2) 25–34; or (3) 35–49.
 Educational level of mother Categorized into (1) no formal education; (2) primary; (3) secondary; or (4) higher.
 Mother’s body mass index (kg/m2) Categorized into (1) <18.5; (2) 18.5–24.9; or (3) ≥ 25.0.
 Birth interval (months) Categorized into (1) ≥24 and (2) <24.
 Number of under-fives children Categorized into (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 3; or (4) ≥4.
 Head of household Categorized into (1) male or (2) female.
 Wealth index Categorized into (1) (first quintile) (Poorest); (2) (second quintile); (3) (third quintile); (4) (fourth quintile); or (5) (fifth quintile) (Richest)
Community-level factors  
 Residence Poverty rate Categorized into (1) rural or (2) urban. Proportion of households living below poverty level (wealth index below 20 %, poorest quintile). Categorized into (1) Low or (2) High. Median value serves as the reference for the low and high groups.
 Region Categorized into (1) Dire Dawa; (2) Tigray; (3) Afar; (4) Amhara; (5) Oromiya; (6)Somali; (7) Benishangul-Gumuz; (8) SNNP; (9) Gambela; (10) Harari; (11) Addis Ababa
 Latrine facility type Categorized into (1) improved (access to flush toilet, ventilated improved pit latrine, traditional pit latrine with a slab, or composting toilet and does not share this facility with other households) or (2) unimproved.
 Drinking water sources Categorized into (1) piped water; (2) Other improved (protected spring and well, and rain water); (3) unimproved (river, pond, unprotected spring and well).