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Table 3 Risk factors for mortality in singletons and twins in the neonatal (0–28 days) and post-neonatal period (29–365 days) period in the Basse HDSS, The Gambia, 2009–2013

From: The large contribution of twins to neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in The Gambia, a 5-year prospective study

   Singletons (N = 32,436) Twins (N = 1083)  
   Univariate model Multivariate model Univariate model Multivariate model  
Neonatal death OR a 95 % CI c AOR b 95 % CI c OR a 95 % CI c AOR b 95 % CI c P for Interaction d
Sex Boys 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.459
Girls 0.81 0.67–0.97 0.81 0.67–0.98 0.99 0.58–1.70 1.01 0.59–1.72
Ethnicity Serahule 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.455
Fula 1.06 0.83–1.35 1.01 0.85–1.39 1.69 0.75–3.84 1.69 0.74–3.83
Mandinka 1.11 0.90–1.38 1.13 0.91–1.41 1.20 0.55–2.62 1.21 0.55–2.63
Season of birth e Wet 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.194
Dry 0.79 0.65–0.95 0.78 0.64–0.94 1.20 0.65–2.21 1.19 0.65–2.21
Access to clean water f Yes 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.231
No 0.96 0.72–1.29 0.96 0.71–1.28 1.65 0.73–3.73 1.63 0.71–3.75
Birth order 1 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.339
2+ 0.82 0.68–0.99 0.79 0.64–0.98 1.15 0.60–2.20 1.01 0.57–2.14
Birth intervals g 2 years 1 (reference)     1 (reference)     0.258
<2 years 1.06 0.78–1.44 1.24 0.88–1.73 2.03 0.81–5.10 2.15 0.86–5.36
SES index h Poor 1 (reference)     1 (reference)     0.236
Middle 0.80 0.63–1.02 0.80 0.63–1.02 0.55 0.24–1.25 0.57 0.25–1.30
Wealthy 0.76 0.57–1.01 0.77 0.56–1.06 0.47 0.15–1.49 0.46 0.14–1.46
Post neonatal death          
Sex Boys 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.064
Girls 0.96 0.80–1.14 0.95 0.80–1.14 1.78 0.92–3.43 1.81 0.94–3.49
Ethnicity Serahule 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.382
Fula 1.36 1.08–1.71 1.36 1.08–1.70 0.56 0.24–1.33 0.55 0.23–1.30
Mandinka 1.35 1.10–1.65 1.33 1.09–1.63 0.72 0.33–1.59 0.75 0.34–1.65
Season of birth e Wet 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.030
Dry 0.87 0.73–1.03 0.86 0.72–1.02 1.86 0.95–3.66 1.86 0.95–3.65
Access to clean water f Yes 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.042
No 0.80 0.59–1.07 0.77 0.57–1.04 1.91 0.84–4.36 1.92 0.84–4.42
Birth order 1 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   0.221
2+ 0.88 0.74–1.04 0.91 0.76–1.10 0.58 0.30–1.14 0.59 0.30–1.16
Birth intervals g 2 years 1 (reference)         0.804
<2 years 1.22 0.94–1.60 1.42 1.07–1.88 1.09 0.71–0.31 3.91 0.33–4.35
SES index h Poor 1 (reference)     1 (reference)     0.182
Middle 0.77 0.62–0.97 0.80 0.64–1.01 2.15 0.95–4.87 2.14 0.94–4.88
Wealthy 0.64 0.48–0.85 0.67 0.49–0.90 1.80 0.57–5.60 1.77 0.57–5.54
  1. a Odds Ratio
  2. b Odds ratio adjusted for sex, year of birth, ethnicity, season of birth, mother age, birth order
  3. c 95 % confidence interval adjusted for clustering by household
  4. d P value for interaction comparing AOR in singletons and twins
  5. e Wet season is from June to October, and Dry season is from November to May
  6. f Clean water is Tap water (Public, in dwelling/compound) and Protected well (N = 28,048)
  7. g N = 33,362
  8. h Quintiles of SES score grouped: 1&2 poor, 3&4 middle, 5 wealthy (N = 25,835)