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Table 1 Characteristics of twins and singletons in the Basse HDSS, The Gambia, 2009–2013 (N = 33,519)

From: The large contribution of twins to neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in The Gambia, a 5-year prospective study

   Singletons (N = 32,436) Twins (N = 1083)    
No. % No. % OR a 95 % CIb P value
Sex         
  Boys 16386 50.5 504 46.5 1 (reference)   
  Girls 16049 49.5 579 53.5 1.17 1.02–1.34 0.022
Ethnicity         
  Serahule 14604 45.0 513 47.4 1 (reference)   
  Mandinka 6721 20.7 232 21.4 0.98 0.84–1.15 0.828
  Fula 10508 32.4 321 29.6 0.87 0.75–1.00 0.053
  Others 597 1.8 17 1.6 0.81 0.50–1.32 0.401
Region         
  Rural 28633 88.3 970 89.6 1 (reference)   
  Urban 3803 11.7 113 10.4 0.88 0.67–1.15 0.351
Season of birth d         
  Wet 17294 53.3 641 59.2 1 (reference)   
  Dry 15142 46.7 442 40.8 0.79 0.67–0.93 0.006
Birth order         
  1 14395 44.4 393 36.3 1 (reference)   
  2 12461 38.4 450 41.6 1.32 1.09–1.60 0.005
  3+ 5580 17.2 240 12.2 1.58 1.25–1.98 <0.001
Mother age         
  <20 4810 15.0 80 7.5 1 (reference)   
  20–24 10087 31.4 249 23.2 1.48 1.04–2.11 0.024
  25–29 7470 23.3 265 24.7 2.12 1.48–3.04 <0.001
  30–34 5770 18.0 282 26.3 2.94 2.06–4.19 <0.001
  35 3978 12.4 196 18.3 2.96 2.04–4.29 <0.001
Mother education level        
  No 5600 17.3 162 15.0 1 (reference)   
  Religious 17201 53.0 633 58.5 1.28 1.00–1.64 0.052
  Basic 2665 8.2 67 6.2 0.87 0.58–1.31 0.517
  Senior 679 2.1 20 1.9 1.02 0.50–2.11 0.948
  Unknown 6291 19.4 201 18.6 1.11 0.82–1.50 0.489
Birth interval (<2 years) e        
  2 years 29110 90.2 981 91.6 1 (reference)   
<2 years 3181 9.9 90 8.4 0.84 0.67–1.05 0.117
Access to clean water f        
  Yes 23723 86.5 793 85.6 1 (reference)   
  No 3700 13.5 133 14.4 1.08 0.82–1.41 0.603
SES index g         
  1st/Poorest 5,150 20.3 159 18.6 1 (reference)   
  2nd 6,797 26.8 221 25.8 1.05 0.77–1.43 0.742
  3rd 3,250 12.8 127 14.8 1.27 0.90–1.77 0.180
  4th 5,129 20.2 195 22.8 1.23 0.90–1.67 0.194
  5th/wealthy 5,061 19.9 154 18.0 0.99 0.71–1.36 0.930
  1. a Odds Ratio, b 95 % confidence interval adjusted for clustering by household
  2. c P value were tested by Wald test with GEE accounting for clustering by households
  3. d Wet season is from June to October, and Dry season is from November to May
  4. f Clean water is Tap water (Public, in dwelling/compound) and Protected well (N = 28,349)
  5. e N = 33,362, g N = 26,242