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Table 4 Cross-Sectional Studies Included in the Systematic Review by Selected Study Information

From: Childhood asthma and physical activity: a systematic review with meta-analysis and Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology assessment

Author Year Study design Age* (years) Definition Number Main effect size
Adj OR
Adj covariates Key conclusions reported by the study authors
Physical activity Asthma Asthma Total
Nystad 1997 Cross-sectional 7–16 Area I–III HBSC (WHO), two questions (hrs/wk and freq/wk) ISAAC questionnaire and question on current asthma from reference 222
Area
I: 123
II: 69
III: 30
4,021
Area
I: 2,188
II: 1,045
III: 788
Association (OR [95%CI]) between current asthma and PA 1–3 hrs/wk vs ≤0.5 hr/wk (rfgr): 1.0 (0.6–1.5) Age, gender, study area Asthmatic children as physically active as peers
Nystad 2001 Cross-sectional 7–16 HBSC (WHO), two questions (hrs/wk and freq/wk); only hrs reported in article ISAAC questionnaire plus question about current asthma (from ATS-MRC) 116wz 2,112 Associations (OR [95%CI]) wz or whistling (all children) and PA
≤1 hr/wk: 1.9 (0.9–3.8)
2–3 hrs/wk: 2.6 (1.3–5.2)
≥4 hrs/wk: 2.5 (1.2–4.9)
vs none (rfgr) “No clear dose-response relationship, but the effect was mainly among active vs inactive children”
Age, atopy (eczema and/or hay fever), current asthma, gender Positive associations between PA and wz
Lang 2004 Cross-sectional 6–12 Questionnaire 1
) total mins active in one (1) day;
2) number of days active in typical wk
Questionnaire. Medical provider ever-diagnosed asthma and some asthma symptoms in last 12 months 137 243 Association (OR [95%CI]) between mod/severe persistent asthma and PA <30 mins/day (inactivity) vs all other PA-groups (rfgr): 3.00 (1.19–7.52) (P<0.05) Gender, health beliefs (e.g., child can do as much PA as children similar age without asthma or child upset with strenuous activity) Disease severity and parental health beliefs contributed to lower activity levels of children with asthma
Jones 2006 Cross-sectional 9–12th grade PA-levels (questionnaire) Questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed asthma denoted lifetime asthma with/ without current asthma last 12 months 1,943 13,553 Association (OR [95%CI]) between asthma status and sufficient mod PA: 1.1 (0.9–1.3) Grade, race/ethnicity, gender No differences in participation in vig or mod PA among students with and without current asthma
Priftis 2007 Cross-sectional 10–12 PA questionnaire (PANACEA) ISAAC questionnaire. Asthma symptoms, e.g., ever asthma or ever wz 166Symptoms 700 Associations (OR [95%CI]) for asthma symptoms in boys; girls not participating in any PA vs no participation last wk (rfgr):
2.17 (1.34–3.54) (P<0.05);
1.63 (0.86–3.11)
Body weight (per 5 kg), time of watching TV or playing video games per day (per 1 hr) PA associated with reduced odds of reporting asthma symptoms
Corbo 2008 Cross-sectional 6–7 PA levels in regular sports (i.e., formal games or other aerobic exercise) (questionnaire) ISAAC questionnaire. Defined current asthma 1,343 20,016 Association (OR [95%CI]) between current asthma and low freq of regular sports (1–2 times per wk) vs none (rfgr): 1.13 (0.93–1.38)
(P trend = 0.069)
Age, BMI, dietary variables, family asthma or rhinitis, mold, parental education and smoking, person filling questionnaire, regular sports, season, gender, study center, TV viewing Wz or asthma not associated with regular sports activity
Kosti 2012 Cross-sectional 10–12 PA questionnaire (PANACEA) ISAAC questionnaire. Asthma symptoms, e.g., ever asthma or ever wz 228 1,125 Association (OR [95%CI]) between leisure-time PA and asthma symptoms:
0.90 (0.79–1.03) (Ns)
Age, BMI, KIDMORE score, gender, urban/rural Inverse relationship between asthma symptoms and leisure PA (rural)
Mitchell 2013 Cross-sectional 6–7 and 13–14 Weekly vig PA (freq) (questionnaire) ISAAC questionnaire, i.e., ever asthma Data not given 76,164
(6–7 years)
201,370
(13–14 years)
Associations (OR [95%CI]) between reported asthma ever and PA once or twice per wk vs vig PA never or occasionally each wk (rfgr):
0.96 (0.89–1.04) (6–7 years)
1.14 (1.08–1.20) (13–14 years)
BMI, income, language, region, gender, TV viewing Vig PA positively associated with symptoms of asthma in adolescents but not in children
  1. Adj Adjusted or adjustment, *Age: Range, ATS-MRC American Thoracic Society and Medical Research Council, BMI Body mass index, CI Confidence interval, Freq Frequency, Hr/hrs Hour/hours, HBSC Health Behaviour in School-aged Children, ISAAC International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ever asthma and wz last 12 months) [2], KIDMORE index Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents (total scores and categories described in article), Min/s Minute/s, Mod Moderate, Ns Non-significant, OR Odds ratio, PA Physical activity, PANACEA The Physical Activity, Nutrition and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens Study, Rfgr Reference group, Vig Vigorous, Vs Versus, Wk Week, Wz Wheezing