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Table 1 Demographic, anthropometric and metabolic data

From: Neck circumference as a predictor of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation in children: the ACFIES study

  Total (n = 669) Girls (n = 318) Boys (n = 351)
Age (years)a 11.52 ± 1.13 11.52 ± 1.10 11.51 ± 1.16
SBP (mmHg)a 114.51 ± 11.59 113.29 ± 11.72 115.58 ± 11.38b
DBP (mmHg)a 73.78 ± 9.47 73.66 ± 8.97 73.86 ± 9.93
Anthropometric measuresa    
 Weight (kg) 40.08 ± 10.07 40.33 ± 9.77 39.86 ± 10.35
 Height (m) 1.45 ± 0.09 1.45 ± 0.08 1.44 ± 0.09b
 BMI (kg/m2) 18.87 ± 3.61 18.81 ± 3.52 18.93 ± 3.68
 WC (cm) 65.95 ± 9.73 64.86 ± 9.02 66.92 ± 10.24b
 WHR 0.84 ± 0.08 0.81 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.09b
 WHtR 0.45 ± 0.06 0.44 ± 0.06 0.46 ± 0.06b
 NC (cm) 29.93 ± 2.39 28.40 ± 2.06 29.41 ± 2.55b
 %BF-BIA 20.47 ± 7.50 22.71 ± 6.89 18.43 ± 7.46b
 %BF-Skinfold 25.47 ± 11.37 24.63 ± 9.10 26.23 ± 13.04b
 Z-score BMI (kg/m2) -0.0004 ± 0.98 -0.0008 ± 0.98 -5.45-7 ± 0.98
 Z-score WC (cm) -0.038 ± 0.99 4.88-8 ± 0.99 -0.073 ± 0.99b
Biochemical measurementsa    
 FPG (mg/dl) 88.52 ± 12.56 87.87 ± 12.32 89.12 ± 12.76
 TC (mg/dl) 159.23 ± 39.28 158.25 ± 39.04 160.13 ± 39.53
 HDL-C (mg/dl) 75.34 ± 19.96 74.57 ± 19.82 76.04 ± 20.08
 TG (mg/dl) 91.76 ± 52.37 94.07 ± 46.79 89.67 ± 56.97b
 hs-CRP (mg/dl) 0.89 ± 1.62 0.88 ± 1.52 0.89 ± 1.71
 Insulin (lU/ml) 2.58 ± 2.61 2.91 ± 2.91 2.29 ± 2.26b
 HOMA-IR 0.57 ± 0.58 0.64 ± 0.66 0.50 ± 0.50b
Weight status (n - %)d    
 o Underweight 29 (4.4) 9 (2.9) 20 (5.8)
 o Normal weight 479 (72.8) 240 (77.2) 239 (68.9)
 o Overweight 85 (12.9) 42 (13.5) 43 (12.4)
 o Obese 65 (9.8) 20 (6.4) 45 (12.9)
Tanner stage (n - %)e    
 o 1 368 (56.3) 149 (47.8) 219 (64.0)c
 o 2 208 (31.8) 110 (35.3) 98 (28.7)
 o 3 78 (11.9) 53 (16.9) 25 (7.3)
  1. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, WHtR waist-to-height ratio, NC neck circumference, %BF-BIA body fat percentage – bioelectrical impedance analysis, %BF-Skinfold body fat percentage – skinfolds, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein
  2. aData are presented as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables. bMann-Whitney test p < 0.05. cPearson’s chi-squared test (Chi2) p <0.05
  3. ddata missing for 11 participants
  4. edata missing for 15 participants