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Table 2 Exposure rate (%) of drugs most prescribed of neonates admitted to NICUs in Brazil

From: Off-label use and harmful potential of drugs in a NICU in Brazil: A descriptive study

GA < 28 weeks GA 28–30 weeks GA 31–33 weeks GA 34–36 weeks GA ≥ 37 weeks
  n ER   n ER   n ER   n ER   n ER
aminophylline 22 3.99 aminophylline 29 3.52 aminophylline 36 5.10 gentamicin 28 3.97 fentanyl 23 2.77
phytomenadione 19 3.44 phytomenadione 28 3.40 ampicillin 27 3.82 ampicillin 26 3.69 heparin 23 2.77
multivitamins without mineralsa 18 3.26 multivitamins without mineralsa 27 3.28 gentamicin 27 3.82 fentanyl 21 2.98 gentamicin 18 2.17
folinic acid 17 3.08 heparin 25 3.03 dobutamine 19 2.69 multivitamins without mineralsa 20 2.84 ampicillin 17 2.05
ampicillin 16 2.90 folinic acid 24 2.91 phytomenadione 19 2.69 phytomenadione 19 2.70 metamizole 15 1.81
gentamicin 16 2.90 ampicillin 22 2.67 multivitaminsb 18 2.55 folinic acid 18 2.55 dobutamine 15 1.81
fentanyl 15 2.72 gentamicin 21 2.55 multivitamins without mineralsa 17 2.41 heparin 18 2.55 ranitidine 15 1.81
heparin 15 2.72 fentanyl 19 2.31 heparin 16 2.27 ranitidine 18 2.55 vancomycin 12 1.45
pulmonary surfactant 11 1.99 pulmonary surfactant 19 2.31 folinic acid 15 2.12 dobutamine 14 1.99 domperidone 11 1.33
meropenem 10 1.81 dobutamine 18 2.18 vancomycin 15 2.12 domperidone 13 1.84 alprostadil 10 1.20
vancomycin 10 1.81 domperidone 18 2.18 fentanyl 14 1.98 metamizole 12 1.70 phenobarbital 10 1.20
dobutamine 9 1.63 vancomycin 16 1.94 domperidone 11 1.56 multivitaminsb 11 1.56 phytomenadione 10 1.20
amphotericin B 6 1.09 meropenem 14 1.70 amikacin 10 1.42 pulmonary surfactant 9 1.28 folinic acid 9 1.08
cefepime 6 1.09 multivitaminsb 13 1.58 pulmonary surfactant 10 1.42 epinephrine 8 1.13 amikacin 9 1.08
domperidone 6 1.09 amikacin 8 0.97 ranitidine 8 1.13 furosemide 8 1.13 midazolam 9 1.08
teicoplanin 6 1.09 amphotericin B 8 0.97 cefepime 7 0.99 vancomycin 8 1.13 multivitamins without mineralsa 9 1.08
epinephrine 5 0.91 cefepime 8 0.97 metamizole 6 0.85 aminophylline 7 0.99 furosemide 8 0.96
tricalcium phosphate 5 0.91 epinephrine 8 0.97 hydrocortisone 6 0.85 cefepime 7 0.99 epinephrine 6 0.72
multivitaminsb 5 0.91 omeprazole 8 0.97 omeprazole 6 0.85 omeprazole 7 0.99 meropenem 6 0.72
ranitidine 5 0.91 tricalcium phosphate 7 0.85 epinephrine 5 0.71 amikacin 6 0.85 multivitaminsb 6 0.72
ferrous sulfate 5 0.91 ranitidine 7 0.85 tricalcium phosphate 5 0.71 mineral oil 6 0.85 dexamethasone 5 0.68
  1. ER exposure rate per 100 neonates
  2. avitamins A, B2, B3, B5, B6, C, D, E
  3. bvitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B8, C, D2, E