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Table 5 Association between all haematology and biochemistry parameters and explanatory variables age, sex and season

From: Seasonal variation in haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy young children in The Gambia

Parameter Estimated effect on the median (SE)a value of parameter
  Cubic spline of ageb Genderc Seasond
Total WBC (109/L) −0.08 (0.006); p < 0.0001 −0.07 (0.15); p = 0.01 0.56 (0.15); p = 0.0002
Lymphocytes (109/L) −0.06 (0.004); p < 0.0001 −0.05 (0.10); p = 0.65 0.31 (0.10); p = 0.004
Monocytes (109/L) −0.004 (0.001); p < 0.0001 −0.02 (0.02); p = 0.16 0.06 (0.02); p = 0.0002
Neutrophils (109/L) −0.004 (0.003); p = 0.13 −0.22 (0.08); p = 0.004 0.26 (0.08); p = 0.0007
Eosinophils (109/L) 0.003 (0.001); p < 0.0001 0.02 (0.02); p = 0.31 −0.02 (0.02); p = 0.24
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 0.041 (0.002); p < 0.0001 −0.053 (0.068); p = 0.44 −0.662 (0.069); p < 0.0001
Platelets (109/L) −2.75 (0.29); p < 0.0001 −8.34 (7.43); p = 0.26 44.0 (7.41); p < 0.0001
Sodium (mmol/L) 0.03 (0.01); p < 0.0001 −0.24 (0.16); p = 0.13 −0.92 (0.16); p < 0.0001
Potassium (mmol/L) −0.007 (0.001); p < 0.0001 −0.09 (0.04); p = 0.02 −0.12 (0.04); p = 0.002
Urea (mmol/L) 0.03 (0.002); p < 0.0001 0.12 (0.05); p = 0.02 −0.19 (0.05); p = 0.003
Creatinine (μmol/L) 0.20 (0.01); p < 0.0001 0.77 (0.29); p = 0.01 −10.9 (0.35); p < 0.0001
AST (U/L) −0.07 (0.02); p = 0.005 0.44 (0.65); p = 0.50 −1.88 (0.65); p = 0.004
ALT (U/L) 0.03 (0.01); p = 0.02 −0.09 (0.37); p = 0.80 5.80 (0.40); p < 0.0001
Albumin g/dL 0.04 (0.01); p < 0.0001 −0.02 (0.26); p = 0.39 −1.93 (0.26); p < 0.0001
  1. a Standard errors of the estimated effect on the median value
  2. b A positive sign of the coefficient indicates that the median value increases with age
  3. c Males are compared to females (reference)
  4. d Wet season is compared to dry season (reference)