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Table 3 Factors associated with severe stunting in children aged 0–23 months and 0–59 months

From: Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in Tanzania: evidence from the 2010 cross-sectional household survey

Characteristic Severely stunted children 0–23 Months Severely stunted children 0–59 Months
Unadjusted OR [95 % CI] P Adjusted OR [95 % CI] p Unadjusted OR [95 % CI] p Adjusted OR [95 % CI] p
Parental factor
Maternal working status
 Non-working 1.00     1.00    
 Working (past 12 months) 1.15 [0.77–1.70] 0.497    1.05 [0.78–1.40] 0.761   
Maternal education
 Secondary and above 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Primary 3.44 [1.68–7.02] 0.001 3.63 [1.58–8.28] 0.002 3.28 [2.04–5.27] <0.001 1.95 [1.12–3.41] 0.017
 No education 4.41 [2.22–8.76] <0.001 4.86 [2.08–11.35] <0.001 4.50 [2.74–7.39] <0.001 2.57 [1.46–4.50] 0.001
Partner's occupation
 Non agriculture 1.00     1.00    
 Agriculture 1.43 [1.01–2.03] 0.046    1.50 [1.22–1.84] <0.001   
 Not working 0.73 [0.38–1.41] 0.352    1.08 [0.72–1.61] 0.721   
Partner's education
 Secondary and above 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 Primary 1.99 [1.16–3.44] 0.013    2.57 [1.80–3.66] <0.001 1.79 [1.19–2.71] 0.005
 No education 1.87 [1.03–3.40] 0.041    2.92 [1.94–4.39] <0.001 1.71 [1.07–2.72] 0.022
Mother's age
 15–24 years 1.00     1.00    
 25–34 years 0.98 [0.73–1.30] 0.873    1.14 [0.92–1.42] 0.212   
 35-49 years 1.46 [0.99–2.14] 0.054    1.27 [0.96–1.66] 0.089   
Mother's age at birth
 < 19 years 1.00     1.00    
 20–29 years 0.61 [0.43–0.88] 0.009    0.87 [0.67–1.12] 0.293   
 30–39 years 0.97 [0.64–1.47] 0.893    1.08 [0.81–1.45] 0.597   
 40 and above 0.88 [0.44–1.76] 0.726    0.93 [0.57–1.52] 0.774   
Marital status
 Currently married 1.00     1.00    
 Formerly married+ 1.49 [0.93–2.39] 0.099    1.33 [0.98–1.79] 0.064   
 Never married 0.60 [0.33–1.10] 0.101    0.80 [0.52–1.22] 0.301   
Birth order
 First-born 1.00     1.00    
 2nd -4th 0.94 [0.65–1.35] 0.734    1.24 [0.98–1.56] 0.074   
 5 or more 1.06 [0.71–1.57] 0.781    1.34 [1.02–1.72] 0.034   
Preceding birth interval  
 No previous birth 1.00     1.00    
 < 24 months 1.28 [0.80–2.04] 0.296    1.52 [1.15–2.02] 0.003   
 > 24 months 0.94 [0.65–1.34] 0.721    1.23 [0.97–1.54] 0.081   
Place of delivery
 Home 1.00     1.00    
 Health facility 0.68 [0.52–0.91] 0.010    0.68 [0.57–0.83] <0.001   
Mode of delivery
 Non-caesarean 1.00     1.00    
 Caesarean 0.77 [0.34–1.72] 0.520    0.82 [0.49–1.35] 0.435   
Type of delivery assistance
 Health professional 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 Traditional birth attendant 1.70 [1.19–2.42] 0.003    1.88 [1.46–2.43] <0.001 1.51 [1.15–1.99] 0.003
 Relatives and other 1.57 [1.14–2.19] 0.006    1.57 [1.27–1.94] <0.001 1.34 [1.06–1.70] 0.014
 No one 0.89[0.34–2.34] 0.816    0.79 [0.47–1.33] 0.385 0.78 [0.44–1.39] 0.409
Antenatal clinic visits
 4+ 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 1-3. 1.22 [0.90–1.66] 0.179 1.23[0.89–1.67] 0.199 1.25 [1.01–1.54] 0.043   
 None 2.62 [1.57–4.38] <0.001 2.01[1.17–3.46] 0.012 1.38 [1.11–1.72] 0.004   
Timing of postnatal check-up
 No check-ups& 1.00     1.00    
 0-2 days 0.94 [0.66–1.34] 0.726    0.82 [0.64–1.06] 0.124   
 3-6 days 1.11 [0.64–1.95] 0.703    1.11 [0.70–1.72] 0.684   
 7 + days 0.75 [0.48–1.17] 0.207    0.84 [0.63–1.12] 0.239   
Maternal BMI
 > 18.5 (kg/m2) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 <= 18.5 (kg/m2) 1.77 [1.20–2.62] 0.004 1.59 [1.05–2.41] 0.028 1.67 [1.28–2.19] <0.001 1.50 [1.11–2.02] 0.008
Child BF status
 Exclusive BF 1.00     1.00    
 BF + water 0.84 [0.29–2.45] 0.756    0.71 [0.34–1.36] 0.303   
 BF + supplements 1.74 [1.04–2.92] 0.035    0.96 [0.76–1.27] 0.772   
 No BF 3.07 [1.80–5.23] <0.001    1.16 [0.89–1.51] 0.270   
Mother was literate
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.85 [0.65–1.09] 0.209    0.71 [0.60– 0.85] <0.001   
Listening to radio
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.89 [0.67–1.18] 0.445    0.80 [0.67–0.94] 0.009   
Mother read newspaper/magazine
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.81 [0.55–1.19] 0.292    0.82 [0.64–1.04] 0.114   
Mother watched TV
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.79 [0.51–1.21] 0.278    0.67 [0.50–0.90] 0.007   
Child level factors
Child’s age 1.06 [1.09–1.11] <0.001 1.09 [1.07–1.12] <0.001 1.00 [1.00–1.01] 0.002   
Sex of baby
 Female 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Male 1.46 [1.13–1.89] 0.003 1.63 [1.22–2.16] 0.001 1.36 [1.17–1.58] <0.001 1.45 [1.23–1.72] <0.001
Size of baby
 Large 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Average 1.60 [1.15–2.24] 0.005 1.65 [1.18–2.31] 0.004 1.55 [1.25–1.90] <0.001 1.48 [1.19–1.84] <0.001
 Very small 3.06 [1.77–5.29] <0.001 3.26 [1.80–5.90] <0.001 2.54 [1.88–3.43] <0.001 2.64 [1.92–3.63] <0.001
Child had diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.06 [0.75–1.51] 0.738    1.15 [0.92–1.42] 0.212   
Child had fever in last 2 weeks
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.19 [0.87–1.62] 0.272    0.99 [0.78–1.25] 0.941   
Household level factors
Wealth Index         
 Poorest 1.00     1.00    
 Poorer 1.01 [0.56–1.82] 0.979    1.50 [0.96–2.35] 0.074   
 Middle 1.18 [0.64–2.18] 0.585    1.77 [1.19–2.63] 0.005   
 Rich 1.51 [0.86–2.65] 0.147    2.29 [1.54–3.41] <0.001   
 Richest 1.52 [0.85–2.75] 0.159    2.39 [1.59–3.58] <0.001   
Source of drinking water
 Protected 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Unprotected 1.58 [1.15–2.18] 0.005 1.50 [1.05–2.14] 0.025 1.58 [1.29–1.94] <0.001 1.22 [1.13–1.79] 0.003
Community level factors
Type of residence
 Rural 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 Urban 1.06 [0.74–1.53] 0.734 1.52 [1.02–2.27] 0.040 1.54 [1.16–2.05] 0.003   
Geographic Zones
 Northern 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 Eastern 0.81 [0.40–1.60] 0.530    0.65 [0.35–1.03] 0.065 0.74 [0.43–1.27] 0.281
 Western 1.09 [0.69–1.73] 0.692    0.70 [0.48–1.02] 0.065 0.64 [0.42–0.95] 0.028
 Southern Highlands 1.28 [0.76–2.15] 0.351    1.15 [0.77–1.71] 0.473 1.13 [0.75–1.71] 0.546
 Lake 0.78 [0.45–1.37] 0.389    0.74 [0.48–1.16] 0.199 0.73 [0.46–1.13] 0.164
 Southern 0.98 [0.57–1.70] 0.961    0.97 [0.66–1.43] 0.888 0.96 [0.65–1.43] 0.876
 Central 1.53 [0.91–2.56] 0.105    1.31 [0.89–1.92] 0.165 1.15 [0.77–1.70] 0.484
 Zanzibar 0.93 [0.57–1.50] 0.765    0.59 [0.40–0.86] 0.007 0.80 [0.52–1.24] 0.327
  1. &(including missing)
  2. + (divorced/separated /widowed)