Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with stunting in children aged 0-23 months and 0-59 months

From: Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in Tanzania: evidence from the 2010 cross-sectional household survey

Characteristic Stunted children 0–23 Months Stunted children 0–59 Months
  Unadjusted OR [95 % CI] P Adjusted OR [95 % CI] P Unadjusted OR [95 % CI] p Adjusted OR [95 % CI] p
Parental factor
Maternal working status         
 Non-working 1.00     1.00    
 Working (past 12 months) 1.57 [1.19–2.07] 0.002    1.23 [1.02–1.49] 0.029   
Maternal education
 Secondary and above 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Primary 2.08 [1.33–3.26] 0.001 1.82 [1.15–2.86] 0.011 2.26 [1.61–3.18] <0.0001 1.53 [1.07–2..19] 0.019
 No education 2.51 [1.59–3.96] <0.001 2.26 [1.41–3.60] 0.001 2.54 [1.77–3.64] <0.0001 1.61 [1.08–2.40] 0.019
Partner's occupation
 Not working 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 Agriculture 1.57 [1.06–2.30] 0.023 1.62 [1.05–2.49] 0.027 1.42 [1.21–1.67] <0.001   
 Non agriculture 1.07 [0.72–1.59] 0.712 1.30 [0.80–2.04] 0.233 0.98 [0.72–1.32] 0.889   
Partner's education
 Secondary and above 1.00     1.00    
 Primary 2.19 [1.44–3.03] <0.001    2.08 [1.58–2.14] <0.001   
 No education 1.74 [1.12–2.72] 0.014    2.02 [1.51–2.71] <0.001   
Mother's age (years)
 15–24 1.00     1.00    
 25–34 0..86 [0.70–1.05] 0.145    0.92 [0.80–1.06] 0.246   
 35–49 1.20 [0.93–1.55] 0.168    1.10 [0.93–1.31] 0.277   
Mother's age at child’s birth (years)
 20–29 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 30–39 1.21 [0.95–1.53] 0.111 1.18 [0.93–1.52] 0.175 1.15 [0.99–1.33] 0.060   
 ≥ 40 1.47 [0.92–2.35] 0.106 1.66 [1.02–2.70] 0.040 1.13 [0.83–1.54] 0.259   
 < 20 1.53 [1.17–2.01] 0.002 1.77 [1.27- 2.46] 0.001 1.28 [1.07–1.53] 0.006   
Marital status
 Currently married 1.00     1.00    
 Formerly married+ 1.27 [0.87–1.84] 0.211    1.18 [0.94–1.48] 0.149   
 Never married 0 .78 [0.53–1.15] 0.209    0.80 [0.57–1.11] 0.184   
Birth order
 First-born 1.00     1.00    
 2nd -4th 0.96 [0.74–1.24] 0.736    1.04 [0.89–1.22] 0.602   
 5+ 1.03 [0.77–1.36] 0.854    1.10 [0.92–1.31] 0.302   
Preceding birth interval
 No previous birth 1.00     1.00    
 < 24 months 1.09 [0.75–1.59] 0.644    1.25 [0.99–1.58] 0.066   
 > 24 months 0.97 [0.75–1.24] 0.792    1.04 [0.89–1.20] 0.651   
Place of delivery
 Home 1.00     1.00    
 Health facility 0.81 [0.65–1.00] 0.053    0.76 [0.65–0.88] <.0001   
Type of delivery assistance
 Health professional 1.00     1.00    
 Traditional birth attendant 1.44 [ 1.09–1.91] 0.010    1.55 [1.28–1.88] <0.001   
 Relatives or other 1.28 [0.99–1.64] 0.052    1.33 [1.13–1.57] 0.001   
 No one 0.61 [0.32–1.16] 0.130    0.96 [0.68–1.37] 0.831   
Mode of delivery
 Non-caesarean 1.00     1.00    
 Caesarean 0.75 [0 .48–1.15] 0.188    0.70 [0.51–0.98] 0.035   
Timing of postnatal check-up         
 No check-ups& 1.00     1.00    
 0-2 days 0.95 [0.73–1.25] 0.729    0.85 [0.70–1.03] 0.101   
 3-6 days 1.04 [0.67–1.59] 0.874    0.99 [0.72–1.35] 0.927   
 7 + days 0.71 [0.51–0.98] 0.040    0.73 [0.57–0.92] 0.011   
Antenatal clinic visits
 None 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 1-3. 0.62 [0.39–0.98] 0.043    0.75 [0.65–0.87] <0.001 0.78 [0.65–0.95] 0.017
 4+ 0.59 [0.38–0.92] 0.020    0.71 [0.61–0.84] <0.001 0.82 [0.65–1.02] 0.080
Maternal BMI (kgm−2)
 > 18.5 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 < 18.5 1.54 [1.17–2.03] 0.002    1.46 [1.21–1.77] <0.001 1.38 [1.12–1.69] 0.002
Child BF status
 Exclusive BF 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 BF + water 0.94 [0.59–1.70] 0.836    1.04 [0.68–1.59] 0.869 1.09 [0.71–1.67] 0.668
 BF + supplements 2.11 [1.51, 2.94] <0.001    1.20 [0.98–1.46] 0.076 1.26 [1.03–1.53] 0.022
 No BF 5.07 [3.40–7.56] <0.001    1.69 [1.38–2.06] <0.001 2.02 [1.65–2.46 <0.001
Mother is literate
 No 1.00   1.00   1.00    
 Yes 0.93 [0.77–1.12] 0.450 1.36 [1.03–1.82] 0.032 0.82 [0.72–0.93] 0.003   
Mother read newspaper
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.93 [0.70–1.24] 0.625    0.87 [0.71–1.07] 0.183   
Mother listened to the radio
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.06 [0.87–1.29] 0.537    0 .92 [0.81–1.04] 0.190   
Mother watched television
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 0.79 [0.57–1.08] 0.141    0.63 [0.50–0.81] <0.001   
Child level factors         
 Child’s age 1.11 [1.09–1.13] <0.001 1.11[1.10–1.13]   1.01 [1.01–1.02] <0.001   
Sex of baby         
 Female 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Male 1.42 [1.17–1.73] <0.001 1.66 [1.34–2.06] <0.001 1.36 [1.21–1.52] <0.001 1.39 [1.23–1.58] <0.001
Size of baby
 Large 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Average 1.30 [1.03–1.64] 0.028 1.39 [1.09–1.77] 0.007 1.23 [1.07–1.40] 0.002 1.18 [1.03–1.34] 0.015
 Very small 1.93 [1.33–2.81] <0.001 2.23 [1.47–3.38] <0.001 1.82 [1.45–2.29] <0.001 1.92 [1.52–2.43] <0.001
Child had diarrhoea (past 2 weeks)
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.11 [0..87–1.41] 0.407    1.03 [0.87–1.22] 0.715   
Child had fever in (past two weeks)
 No 1.00     1.00    
 Yes 1.19 [0.96–1.46] 0.115    1.02 [0.88–1.18] 0.754   
Household level factors
Household wealth index
 Richest 1.00     1.00   1.00  
 Richer 1.35 [0.89–2.04] 0.155    1.68 [1.25–2.25] 0.001 1.40 [1.03–1.89] 0.030
 Middle 1.49 [0.99–2.26] 0.057    2.06 [1.55–2.74] <0.001 1.67 [1.23–2.28] 0.001
 Poorer 1.49 [0.99–2.25] 0.057    2.12 [1.58–2.83] <0.001 1.81 [1.34–2.45] <0.001
 Poorest 1.85 [1.25–2.74] 0.002    2.48 [1.87–3.29] <0.001 1.95 [1.43–2.65] <0.001
Source of drinking water
 Protected 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Unprotected 1.48 [1.19–1.84] <0.001 1.33 [1.04–1.70] 0.020 1.42 [1.23–1.63] <0.001 1.26 [1.08–1.46] 0.002
Community level factors
Type of residence         
 Urban 1.00     1.00    
 Rural 1.40 [1.06–1.85] 0.019    1.76 [1.43–2.17] <0.001   
Geographic Zones
 Northern 1.00     1.00    
 Eastern 0.84 [0.51–1.37] 0.486    0.62 [0.44–0.86] 0.005   
 Western 1.35 [0.96–1.90] 0.085    0.95 [0.75–1.19] 0.640   
 Southern Highlands 1.59 [1.05–2.39] 0.026    1.39 [1.01–1.90] 0.043   
 Lake 0.93 [0.67–1.28] 0.654    0.83 [0.65–1.05] 0.124   
 Southern 1.15 [0.78–1.71] 0.482    1.08 [0.85–1.38] 0.527   
 Central 1.55 [1.09–2.19] 0.014    1.30 [0.99–1.70] 0.063   
 Zanzibar 0.81 [0.58–2.18] 0.222    0.55 [0.43–0.71] <0.001   
  1. &(including missing)
  2. + (divorced/separated /widowed)