Skip to main content

Table 2 Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births), 5 year periods preceding the survey and unadjusted Odds Ratio by explanatory variables (n = 5391, weighted)

From: The socio-economic determinants of infant mortality in Nepal: analysis of Nepal Demographic Health Survey, 2011

Determinants n, weighted Percent IMR [95 % CI] Bivariate logistic regression
uOR 95 % CI
Ecological Region      
 Mountain 428 7.9 65 [49–80] 1.45* 1.04 2.03
 Hill 2131 39.5 45 [35–55] 1.12 0.84 1.50
 Terai 2833 52.5 44 [34–55] 1 - -
Development Region       
 Far western 605 11.2 66 [49–83] 1.74* 1.11 2.71
 Mid western 793 14.7 42 [30–53] 1.18 0.75 1.87
 Eastern 1269 23.5 46 [32–61] 1.17 0.74 1.85
 Central 1717 31.8 45 [31–60] 1.11 0.70 1.78
 Western 1007 18.7 40 [25–55] 1 - -
Type of place of residence       
 Rural 4888 90.7 47 [40–55] 1.30 0.92 1.82
 Urban 503 9.3 40 [26–54] 1 - -
 Wealth Index       
 Poorest 1390 25.8 49 [38–60] 2.53*** 1.51 4.21
 Poorer 1182 21.9 50 [35–66] 2.21** 1.28 3.80
 Middle 1133 21.0 55 [37–73] 2.11** 1.21 3.67
 Richer 937 17.4 41 [25–57] 1.90* 1.07 3.38
 Richest 748 13.9 29 [14–45] 1 - -
Ethnicity       
 Dalit 958 19.8 52 [34–71] 1.05 0.73 1.50
 Janajati 1751 36.2 49 [36–60] 1.05 0.77 1.43
 Other (Muslim and Terai other caste) 410 8.5 51 [23–82] 1.21 0.69 2.11
 Brahmin Chhetri and Newar 1713 35.5 38 [30–46] 1 - -
Religion       
 Hindu 4466 82.8 47 [40–55] 1.18 0.81 1.72
 Others 926 17.2 42 [25–58] 1 - -
Highest educational level of mother       
 No education 2550 47.3 55 [44–66] 1.55* 1.15 2.10
 Primary 1079 20.0 44 [30–58] 1.35 0.93 1.97
 Secondary and higher 1763 32.7 36 [25–46] 1 - -
Highest education level of father       
 No education 1243 23.2 65 [48–83] 1.71** 1.26 2.32
 Primary 1312 24.5 51 [36–65] 1.32 0.97 1.79
 Secondary and higher 2801 52.3 36 [28–45] 1 - -
Mother occupation       
 Not working 1552 28.8 44 [31–59] 0.74 0.54 1.02
 High official work 147 2.7 20 [4–40] 0.38 0.12 1.20
 Sales and service 315 5.8 38 [11–66] 0.59 0.32 1.09
 Skilled manual 107 2.0 65 [14–80] 1.64 0.78 3.43
 Unskilled manual 103 1.9 19 [2–49] 0.62 0.23 1.70
 Agriculture 3164 58.7 50 [41–58] 1 - -
Father occupation       
 Official type 873 16.6 49 [31–69] 0.80 0.53 1.22
 Sales, services 1237 23.5 33 [23–44] 0.73 0.50 1.06
 Skilled manual 951 18.1 52 [33–72] 0.85 0.56 1.28
 Unskilled manual 833 15.9 58 [40–76] 1.17 0.81 1.70
 Agriculture 1361 25.9 45 [32–57] 1 - -
Sex of the child       
 Male 2780 51.6 46 [37–56] 1.06 0.83 1.37
 Female 2611 48.4 46 [37–56] 1 - -
Size of child at birth       
 Larger than average 958 17.8 38 [24–51] 0.89 0.62 1.28
 Smaller than average 661 12.3 42 [25–61] 0.91 0.61 1.36
 Very small 196 3.6 138 [81–190] 3.22*** 2.11 4.92
 Average 3569 66.3 44 [36–53] 1 - -
Birth rank and birth interval       
 First birth rank 1833 34.0 47 [36–59] 1.44* 1.04 1.99
 2–3 birth rank & = <2 years of birth interval 567 10.5 72 [45–100] 2.07** 1.37 3.12
 > = 4 birth rank & > 2 years of birth interval 895 16.6 31 [18–45] 0.99 0.65 1.52
 > = 4 birth rank & = <2 years of birth interval 296 5.5 81 [43–120] 2.37** 1.46 3.85
 2–3 birth rank and >2 years birth interval 1794 33.3 39 [28–51] 1 - -
Age of mother at child birth       
 <20 years 2941 54.6 53 [43–63] 1.27 0.98 1.65
 20–35 years 2450 45.4 39 [30–48] 1 - -
Antenatal visit       
 No 609 30.9 49 [29–70] 0.93 0.60 1.44
 Yes 1363 69.1 53 [37–68] 1 - -
Use of tobacco       
 No 687 12.7 49 [33–65] 1.32 0.95 1.83
 Yes 4704 87.3 46 [38–53] 1 - -
Place of delivery       
 Home 3402 64.1 49 [40–58] 1.31 0.99 1.73
 Health Facility 1905 35.9 38 [28–49] 1 - -
Delivery assistance       
 By TBA/Others 3542 65.7 49 [41–58] 1.26 0.95 1.65
 By SBA/Health professional 1849 34.3 41 [30–52] 1 - -
Postnatal check of visits       
 No 2221 53.8 36 [26–44] 3.23** 1.62 6.42
 Within 24 h 1094 26.5 22 [10–33] 1.99 0.93 4.27
 1 day to 45 days 816 19.7 11 [03–19] 1 - -
National total 53915391   46    
  1. *** = p < 0.001; ** = p < 0.01and * = p < 0.05, uOR unadjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval