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Table 1 Operational definition, categorization and dummy coding of the variables

From: The socio-economic determinants of infant mortality in Nepal: analysis of Nepal Demographic Health Survey, 2011

Variables/ Determinants Definition and categorization
COMMUNITY LEVEL  
 Ecological region Ecological zone (1 = Mountain, 2 = Hill and 3 = Terai (plain area/Lowlands))
 Region (administrative) Developmental regions (1 = Far western, 2 = Mid western, 3 = Eastern, 4 = Central and 5 = Western)
 Residence Type of residence (0 = Rural, 1 = Urban)
HOUSEHOLD LEVEL  
 Household wealth index Composite index of household amenities (1 = Poorest, 2 = Poorer, 3 = Middle, 4 = Richer and 5 = Richest)
 Maternal ethnicity/caste Maternal ethnicity/caste (1 = Dalit, 2 = Janajati, 3 = Others, 4 = Brahmin, Chettri and Newar)
 Maternal religion Maternal religion (1 = Hindu, 2 = Buddhist, Muslim, Christian and Kirat)
 Maternal education Maternal formal years of schooling (0 = No formal school education, 1 = Primary education ie up to class five, 2 = Secondary and higher education ie above class five)
 Father’s education Paternal formal years of schooling (0 = No formal school education, 1 = Primary education ie up to class five, 2 = Secondary and higher education ie above class five)
 Mother’s occupation Mother’s occupational status (0 = Not working, 1 = Official (professional, technical, managerial and clerical), 2 = Sales and services, 3 = Skilled manual, 4 = Unskilled manual and 5 = Agriculture)
 Father’s occupation Father’s occupational status (1 = Official (professional, technical, managerial and clerical), 2 = Sales and services, 3 = Skilled manual, 4 = Unskilled manual and 5 = Agriculture)
PROXIMATE LEVEL  
 Sex of infant Sex of infant (0 = Male and 1 = Female)
 Birth size Subjective assessment of the respondent on the birth size (1 = Very large, 2 = Larger than average; 3 = Smaller than average, 4 = Very small and 5 = Average)
 Birth rank and birth interval Birth rank and birth interval of baby (1 = 1st birth rank, 2 = 2nd or 3rd birth rank and birth interval ≤ 2 years; 3 = ≥ 4th birth rank and birth interval >2 years, 4 = ≥ 4th birth rank, birth interval ≤2 years; 5 = 2nd or 3rd birth rank and birth interval >2 years)
 Age of mother at child birth Maternal age at child birth (1 = <20 years, 2 = 20 to 35 years of age)
 Antenatal care visit Antenatal service received by the mother ((0 = No and 1 = Yes, any visit)
 Use of tobacco Use tobacco by mother (0 = No, smokes nothing and 1 = Yes but did not cover the frequency and duration of smoking)
 Place of delivery Place of delivery (0 = Home and 1 = Health facility)
 Delivery assistance Birth attendance during delivery (0 = By Traditional Birth Attendant/other and 1 = By Skill Birth Attendant or health professional)
 Post Natal Check up (PNC) visits Postnatal check up visits (0 = No, 1 = Within 24 h and 2 = 1 day to 45 days)
OUTCOME LEVEL  
 Death of infant Death of infant (0 = No and 1 = Yes)