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Table 3 Risk factors between social-demographic, environmental and caring factors with childhood drowning deaths, BHIS, 2005

From: Socio-demographic, environmental and caring risk factors for childhood drowning deaths in Bangladesh

Factors Cases Control Odd ratio 95 % CI
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Children’s age (Years)       
 0–4 105 74.6 145 42.7 2.89* 1.89–3.11
 5–9 25 17.7 102 30.1 1.66* 1.44–1.98
 10–17 (RC) 11 7.7 92 27.2 1.00 ……….
Gender       
 Male 80 56.7 178 52.5 1.45* 1.34–1.78
 Female (RC) 61 43.3 161 47.5 1.00 ………
Place of residence       
 Urban 39 27.6 198 58.4 0.67* 0.34–1.87
 Rural (RC) 102 72.4 141 41.6 1.00 ……..
Mothers Education       
 Illiterate 70 49.6 135 39.8 1.69* 1.01–2.81
 Primary 43 30.5 113 33.3 1.24 0.71–2.14
 Secondary + (RC) 28 19.8 91 26.8 1.00 ……….
Fathers education       
 Illiterate 64 45.4 139 41.0 1.10 0.68–1.77
 Primary 30 21.3 88 26.0 0.81 0.46–1.46
 Secondary + (RC) 47 33.4 112 33.0 1.00 ……..
Mothers occupation       
 Home maker 135 95.7 326 96.2 1.00 ………
 Other than housewife 6 4.3 13 3.8 1.11 0.37–3.23
Fathers occupation       
 Cultivator (RC) 98 69.5 221 65.2 1.00 ………
 Other occupation 43 30.5 118 34.8 0.82 0.53–1.28
Mothers age       
 25–29 years (RC) 47 33.3 117 34.5 1.00 ………..
 Less than 20 years 4 2.8 9 2.7 1.11 0.27–4.20
 20–24 years 21 14.9 76 22.4 0.69 0.37–1.29
 30 years+ 69 48.9 137 40.4 1.25 0.78–2.01
Number in children       
 Less than 3 (RC) 45 31.9 137 40.4 1.00 …….
 3–4 46 32.6 124 36.6 1.13 0.68–1.87
 5 & more 50 35.5 78 23.0 1.95* 1.2–3.30
Accompanying person       
 Mother/Caregiver (RC) 21 14.9 276 81.7 1.00 ……..
 Others 120 85.1 62 18.3 25.4* 14.4–45.3
Swimming ability    26 7.7 1.00 …….
Can swim (RC)    142 42.1 4.5* 1.25–19.4
Cannot swim       
Model summary:
2 log likelihood: 242.922
Cox & Snell R Square: 0.51
Negelikereke R: 0.60
Model Chi-Square: 8.019
  1. RC = Reference category, *p = Level of significant, Source: BHIS, 2005