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Table 3 Outcome of clonidine intervention – symptom scores and catecholamines

From: Effects of low-dose clonidine on cardiovascular and autonomic variables in adolescents with chronic fatigue: a randomized controlled trial

  Baseline Week 8 (during treatment)
Symptoms scores   
Orthostatic symptoms – total score   
 Clonidine group, mean 3.8 3.5
 Placebo group, mean 3.5 3.5
 Difference (95 % CI)   −0.05 (−0.5 to 0.4)
 p-value (clonidine vs. placebo)   0.84
Palpitations - score   
 Clonidine group, mean 2.4 2.2
 Placebo group, mean 2.2 2.2
 Difference (95 % CI)   0.06 (−0.3 to 0.4)
 p-value (clonidine vs. placebo)   0.73
Pale and cold hands - score   
 Clonidine group, mean 3.0 2.7
 Placebo group, mean 3.0 2.8
 Difference (95 % CI)   −0.1 (−0.5 to 0.3)
 p-value (clonidine vs. placebo)   0.62
Catecholamines   
Plasma norepinephrine - pmol/L   
 Clonidine group, mean 2040 1557
 Placebo group, mean 1942 1761
 Difference (95 % CI)   −205 (−406 to −4)
 p-value (clonidine vs. placebo)   0.05
Plasma epinephrine - pmol/L   
 Clonidine group, mean 327 291
 Placebo group, mean 415 299
 Difference (95 % CI)   −8 (−44 to 29)
 p-value (clonidine vs. placebo)   0.68
Urine norepinephrine/creatinine ratio - nmol/mmol   
 Clonidine group, mean 13.3 9.6
 Placebo group, mean 13.7 13.6
 Difference (95 % CI)   −3.9 (−6.4 to −1.5)
 p-value (clonidine vs. placebo)   0.002
Urine epinephrine/creatinine ratio - nmol/mmol   
 Clonidine group, mean 1.7 1.2
 Placebo group, mean 1.6 1.6
 Difference (95 % CI)   −0.4 (−0.8 to 0.1)
 p-value (clonidine vs. placebo)   0.11
  1. Missing values were imputed based on the principle of last observation carried forwards. Thus, all calculations are based on 120 individuals (60 in each intervention group except one to two in each group with missing values at baseline). Means and differences at week 8 are estimated from the parameters of the general linear model