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Table 1 Summary of results of studies included in the systematic review

From: Age of introduction of first complementary feeding for infants: a systematic review

Study Study design Country N Outcomes related to age of CF introduction Results from CF introduction at P Conclusion/Main findings related to age of introduction of solids
      6 mo 4 mo   
Cohen et al. 1994 [14] RCT Honduras 141 Growth Wt gain (g) 1092 (356) 1051 (315) ˃0.05 No sig differences in weight and length gain were found between the groups.
Length gain (cm) 3.9 (1.2) 3.8 (1.1) ˃0.05
Dewey et al. 1998 [18] RCT Honduras 164 Fe status Hb (g/L) 104 (10) 109 (10) ˂0.05 Infants who received CF at 4 months had sig higher iron status parameters than EBF infants
Ht 0.33 (0.027) 0.34 (0.026) <0.05
Ferritin (μ/L) 48.4 (44.2) 67.3 (64.5) ˂0.05
Jonsdottir et al. 2012 [15] RCT Iceland 100 Growth Wt gain (z score) -0.01(0.42) -0.02(0.31) 0.90 No sig differences were found between the groups in growth. Sig positive effect of earlier CF introduction on iron stores
  Length gain (z score) 0.04 (0.51) 0.03 (0.50) 0.96
Gain in HC (z score) 0.06 (0.48) 0.06 (0.40) 0.99
Fe status Hb (g/L) 113.7 (7.3) 113.9 (6.1) 0.91
Ferritin (μg/L) 44.0 (53.8) 70.0 (77.3) 0.02
Wells et al. 2012 [16] RCT Iceland 100 Growth Wt (z score) 0.36 (0.99) 0.28 (1.08) 0.7 No significant differences were found between the groups in growth and body composition.
  Length (z score) 0.77 (0.84) 0.60 (0.92) 0.3
BMI (z score) -0.10 (1.04) -0.08 (1.14) 0.9
HC (z score) 1.02 (0.89) 0.94 (0.77) 0.6
Body composition Lean mass (kg) 4.96 (1.18) 5.13 (0.92) 0.4
Fat mass (kg) 3.04 (1.12) 2.71 (0.96) 0.14
Khadivzadeh and Parsai 2004 [17] Observ. Islamic republic of Iran 200 Growth Wt (g) 7719 (763) 7762 (843) 0.95 There were no significant differences in wt and length between infants fed solids at 4 months and infants fed solids at 6 mo of age.
Length (cm) 66.5 (3.0) 66.6 (3.1) 0.86
Wt gain (g) 922 (500) 1015 (419) 0.86
Length gain (cm) 3.6 (1.3) 3.5 (1.1) 0.70
  1. N.B: BMI body mass index, CF complementary feeding, EBF exclusively breastfeeding, HC head circumference, Ht hematocrit, mo month, Observ. observational, Wt weight. Data are presented as mean (SD). Jonsdottir et al. 2012 [15] and Wells et al. 2012 [16] were two articles published from a single RCT